• biological control;
  • Cydia pomonella ;
  • Cydia pomonella granulovirus


The occurrence of resistance of codling moth (CM, Cydia pomonella L.) to Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) used as biological control agent revealed the need for fast and reliable resistance monitoring methods. Here, we describe the development of a laboratory resistance test that is directly performed on larvae extracted from infested apples. This test is based on a 14-day bioassay at a discriminative CpGV concentration of 2 × 105 occlusion bodies/ml diet and can be applied to L1–L4 larvae. Information on virus resistance can be obtained within <4 weeks. In a survey, CM larvae were isolated and tested from 6698 apples from 10 different orchards in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Italy and the Netherlands. We identified seven CM populations resistant or partly resistant to CpGV isolates. Although some of the orchards were treated with commercial CpGV products, this method allowed us to obtain reliable information about the resistance status of the examined populations.