A survey of three mitochondrial DNA regions (control region, NADH5, cytochrome b) and comprehensive sequencing of the control region (631–646 bps) was conducted to examine whether subspecies and geographic populations within three species of Eurasian sturgeons, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, A. stellatus, and Huso huso, are genetically distinct. Neither subspecies nor populations exhibited diagnostic distinction or reciprocal monophyly in any gene region examined. For the control region, molecular variance analyses (amova) indicate that most of the variance is because of differences among haplotypes within subspecies (H. huso: 99.6%; A. stellatus: 95.0%; A. gueldenstaedtii: 81.0%) and populations (A. gueldenstaedtii: 76.1%). Significant pairwise F-values were found for all pairwise comparisons except for Sea of Azov and Caspian Sea A. gueldenstaedtii and Caspian Sea and Black Sea A. stellatus and H. huso. Only weak genetic differentiation is apparent between select subspecies and populations, reflective of biogeographic and management history. High genetic diversity within A. gueldenstaedtii suggests the possibility of additional population structure. Future research and management projects should consider these results.