Fifty-four primers published for six cyprinid fishes were tested to amplify homologous microsatellite loci in Labeo dyocheilus. Fifteen primers yielded successful amplification and seven were polymorphic with 3–9 alleles. To evaluate utility of the identified loci in population genetic study, 84 samples were analysed. The samples were collected from four rivers viz. Beas, Satluj, Yamuna and Jiabharali. The four sample sets displayed different diversity levels, with observed heterozygosity from 0.34 to 0.53. Significant genotype heterogeneity (P < 0.001) over all loci indicated that the samples are not drawn from the same genepool. The identified microsatellite loci are promising for use in fine-scale population structure analysis of L. dyocheilus.