Samples of Boops boops ranging from 7.4 to 30.5 cm were obtained mainly by longline, supplemented by beach seining in the Ria Formosa lagoon, and by market sampling in the Algarve (southern Portugal). The macroscopic analyses of the gonads and the gonad somatic index showed that the south coast of Portugal B. boops spawn mainly from late winter to spring, between February and May. The length at first maturity was similar for males and females and the value for both sexes combined was estimated to be 15.22 cm, corresponding to an age range of 1–3. Age was determined by reading growth bands on otoliths. Age determination was validated by marginal increment analysis. The estimated parameters were L∞ = 28.06, K = 0.22 and t0 = −1.42. Mortality rates were calculated for fish captured with longlines, and the estimated parameters were M = 0.33, Z = 1.04 and F = 0.71. Relative yield per recruit analysis and sensitivity analysis showed that the resource is moderately exploited. From the perspective of sustainability, these results provide support for the use of longlines as a gear that is among the least harmful for species such as the bogue.