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Summary

Molecular phylogenetic studies are very scarce for the Mugilidae family; the present analysis using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and cytochrome b genes is the first study involving Brazilian mugilids. The results corroborate the monophyly of Mugil and are elucidative for the taxonomy of Brazilian mugilids. Mugil curema is clearly divided into two genetically distinct taxa, M. curema type I being closer related to Mugil hospes and the true M. curema (type II) grouping significantly with M. incilis. The results also suggest that Mugil liza and Mugil platanus should be treated as a single species or even populations of Mugil cephalus.