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Effects of phosphorus and vitamin C deficiency, vitamin A toxicity, and lipid peroxidation on skeletal abnormalities in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus)


Author’s address: Santosh P. Lall, Institute for Marine Biosciences, National Research Council, 1411 Oxford Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 3Z1.


Dietary nutrients play an important role in skeletal tissue metabolism of fish. Deficiency and toxicity of certain nutrients have been linked to bone deformities in larval and juvenile fish. The pathogenesis of skeletal disorders in larval and juvenile fish from the same genetic stock, cultured under similar environment conditions is often difficult to distinguish when marginal deficiencies of multiple nutrients are involved. A study was conducted to characterize the skeletal deformities linked to the deficiency of phosphorus and ascorbic acid, vitamin A toxicity and lipid peroxidation in juvenile halibut. Five experimental diets containing a low level of phosphorus (0.5% dry matter basis), no vitamin C supplement, high level of vitamin A (80 000 IU kg−1) and oxidized marine fish oil (peroxide value, 7.53 meq kg−1) and a control diet based on cod fillet and vitamin free casein were fed to juvenile Atlantic halibut for 14 weeks in an attempt to characterize the skeletal deformities. Phosphorus, ascorbic acid, retinol, and α-tocopherol concentrations of liver and kidney were measured at 0 and 14 weeks. Reduced vertebral ash and phosphorus content were observed in fish fed the low phosphorus diet. Skeletal abnormalities included abnormal hemal and neural spines in the hemal region and scoliosis in the cephalic and hemal regions of the vertebral column. Hepatic and kidney ascorbic acid concentrations were significantly lower in the group fed no ascorbic acid supplement. Skeletal abnormalities were scoliosis and lordosis primarily in the hemal region of the vertebral column. High levels of vitamin A in the diet caused increased hepatic retinol content and scoliosis spanning the cephalic/prehemal and anterior hemal regions of the vertebral column. Fish fed the oxidized oil diet showed increased thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value in the liver and muscle tissue with no significant decrease in hepatic vitamin E concentration. The most frequent skeletal deformity observed was scoliosis, spanning the cephalic/prehemal regions as well as the anterior hemal region of the vertebral column. The pattern and type of abnormalities observed in fish fed these experimental diets were similar to those observed in a commercial halibut hatchery.