This paper presents the status and trends in management of sturgeon species and the development of sturgeon aquaculture in the Lower Danube countries: Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Ukraine and Moldova. Sturgeon fishery moratoria and aquaculture development represent first steps in the Lower Danube countries to combat extirpation. Supportive stocking was used as a compensation for the impact of sturgeon fishery and dam construction, but these efforts unfortunately lacked adequate cooperation and coordination between and among region countries. Unsolved problems remain, such as the presence of illegal sturgeon fishery, water pollution, habitat destruction and fragmentation. Construction of fish passes and habitat restoration project developments are two key issues that have yet to be tackled in the Lower Danube region.