Population structure and reproductive biology of an important and less studied freshwater carp, Labeo boggut (Sykes, 1839), from two perennial rivers of Central India were studied between January 2008 and December 2009. Maximum three annual rings were found and used to assess growth data in samples representing 0 to 3+ year classes. LWR indicated positive allometric growth in males and females of both rivers. Asymptotic length (L∞) and growth co-efficient (K) were 22.5 cm and 0.5 year−1 for the Betwa River; and 23.6 cm and 0.6 year−1 for the Ken River. Growth performance index (ø’) was higher in the Ken than in the Betwa. Reproduction was between June and September and GSI of both sexes were maximal in mid-June, thereafter declining until September. Mean size at first sexual maturity was 12.2 cm (n = 12) for females and 13.2 cm (n = 8) for males in the Betwa, and 12.5 cm (n = 13) TL for females and 13.1 cm (n = 9) TL for males in the Ken. The exploitation level (E) and maximum allowable exploitation (Emax) limit of L. boggut was 0.23 and 0.36 in the Betwa, whereas it was 0.33 and 0.37 in the Ken. These presented biological traits and population characters of L. boggut from both rivers provide first basic information for use in future assessment and conservation planning.