This paper examines the level of pathogenic diversity in Australian Fusarium pseudograminearum and Fusarium graminearum isolates for head blight from the assessment of 51 wheat germplasm lines, barley, triticale, rye, maize and sorghum plants. A set of nine putative wheat differentials were selected and assessed with 10 F. graminearum and 12 F. pseudograminearum isolates. Isolates of both species were pathogenic on all the wheat germplasm lines, barley triticale and rye. The isolates differed largely in a quantitative way with only small differential effects and were statistically demarcated into three pathogenicity groups: low, intermediate and high. Such distribution patterns suggest that wheat germplasm lines employ different resistance mechanisms to each group of isolates and the three pathogenicity groups may have different mechanisms controlling pathogenicity. The aggressiveness of F. graminearum and F. pseudograminearum isolates on the wheat germplasm lines were marginally correlated (r = 0.40). Durum wheats were ranked as the most susceptible while Sumai 3, Ituo Komugi, Sotome A, Sotome and Nobeokabouzu komugi were consistently grouped as resistant by both species. These findings reiterate the need to consider pathogen variability in the screening, selection and improvement of resistance to head blight in wheat.