The objective of the present study was to determine whether selection of fluoroquinolone resistance could be easily induced in Campylobacter jejuni-colonized chickens by treatment with enrofloxacin of representative fluoroquinolones at the inherent dosage licensed in Japan (50 ppm in drinking water for 3 days). In the case of isolates from chickens of study 1, an increase in the population of susceptible isolates appeared after the cessation of treatment and maintained throughout the experiments. On the contrary, our results of study 2 demonstrated that administration of enrofloxacin generated a rapid increase of fluoroquinolone resistance in C. jejuni showing the mutation of Asp-90-Asn in the gyrA gene. Present results indicate that the enrofloxacin treatment for broilers at the inherent dosage is able to select fluoroquinolone resistance in C. jejuni. We conclude that whatever enrofloxacin dosage is used, an emergence of fluoroquinolone resistant of C. jejuni occurs.