Phylogenetic analysis of thoracic structures of Carabidae (Coleoptera: Adephaga)

Authors


Institut für Biologie II, Zoologie, Rheinisch-Wwtfälische Technische Universität, Kopernikusstr. 16, W-5100 Aachen, FRG

Abstract

Thoracic structures of adult carabids were examined and analyzed phylogenetically. Geadephaga excl. Trachypachini are considered as a monohyletic unit based on correlated synapomorphic features of the posterior metathoracic region: the metepimeron is parallel-sided and at right angle to the body axis; the metacoxae do not project beyond the lateral margin of the preepisterum. Gehriniini are nor related to Trachypaciini. The metriine-paussine lineage is characterized as monopkyletic by exceptionally long and fairly broad metepimera. The presence of an elytral flange is considered a snapomorphy of Paussinae. The monophyly of Paussinae excluding My-stropomus is sugesred cy extended elytral epipleura, which cover large parts of the metepimera, and by the parallel body outline. The monohyly of Anisochaeta is not supported by conclusive synapomorphic features of the thorax. Cychrini, Carabini, Nebriini, Opistiini, and Notiohi lini seem to form a monophyletic unit, as suggested by the concealed external lamella of the metepimeron. Cicindelinae, Elaphrini, Loricerini, Migadopini, Rhysodini, and Caraboidea Limbata are considered as a monophletic unit based on the following correlated synapomor-phies: meso ‘sternum’ strongl modiled, hexagonal groove reduced, procoxal cavities closed, aex of prosternal process-redced. Caraboidea Limbata (Jeannel 1941–42) excl. Scrobifera are cgaracterized as a monophyletic group by lobate rnetepimera, and conjunct mesocoxal cavities. Caraboidea Limbata excl. Scrobifera and Stylifera (Jeannel 1941–42 are characterized by narrow meseimera. Masoreimorphi, Callistomorphi, Lebiomorphi and Pseudornorphinae are characterizei by biperforate procoxal cavities. It is quite likely that biperforate procoxal cavities are also a groundplan feature of Brachininae.

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