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Keywords:

  • Phalloidin;
  • musculature;
  • Copulatory organs;
  • Platyhelminthes;
  • Isodiametridae

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. AbstractZusammenfassung
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References
  9. Appendix

Molecular sequence data, morphological characters of spermatozoa, and newly obtained morphological characters of penis musculature are used here to revise the systematics of the family Convolutidae (Acoela). Species having isodiametric penes with non-anastomosing longitudinal muscles are transferred to the family Isodiametridae fam. nov. Species with longitudinal penis muscle fibres that anastomose or cross-over each other remain in the Convolutidae. Some species of the genera Convoluta and Conaperta (Convolutidae) are transferred to the genus Isodiametra gen. nov. (Isodiametridae fam. nov.). The genus Stomatricha (Otocelididae) is transferred to the family Convolutidae. Convoluta opisthandropora (Convolutidae) is transferred to the genus Pseudohaplogonaria (Haploposthiidae). Aphanostoma sanguineum (Convolutidae) is transferred to the genus Pseudactinoposthia (Actinoposthiidae).

Zusammenfassung

Molekulare Sequenzdaten, Spermien-Morphologie und erstmals ermittelte morphologische Merkmale der Penismuskulatur werden herangezogen, um die Verwandtschaftsverhältnisse innerhalb der Familie Convolutidae (Acoela) neu zu beleuchten. Dabei werden Arten mit isodiametrischen Penes mit nicht anastomosierender Längsmuskulatur in die neue Familie Isodiametridae gestellt, während Arten mit longitudinalen Penis-Muskelfasern, die sich verbunden oder einanderüberkreuzen, innerhalb der Convolutidae belassen. Einige Arten der Gattungen Convoluta und Conaperta (Convolutidae) werden in die neue Gattung Isodiametra gen. nov. (Isodametridae fam. nov.) gestellt. Die Gattung Stomatricha (Otocelididae) wird in die Familie Convolutidae überführt. Convoluta opisthandropora (Convolutidae) wird in die Gattung Pseudohaplogonaria (Haploposthiidae) gestellt und Aphanostoma sanguineum (Convolutidae) in die Gattung Pseudactinoposthia (Actinoposthiidae).


Introduction

  1. Top of page
  2. AbstractZusammenfassung
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References
  9. Appendix

The Acoela is an extremely diverse taxon of small, cryptic, almost exclusively marine worms. A monograph of the Acoela by Dörjes (1968) established the use of copulatory-organ morphology as the principle means of dividing the taxon into 15 families. Further refinement of Dörjes's system and the description of additional species has expanded the taxon to 20 families containing over 340 species (see Tyler et al. 2005).

The largest of the families, with more than a third of the species of Acoela, is the Convolutidae Graff, 1905. It contains some of the larger and therefore better-known species of acoels, some up to 9 mm in length. Representative of the larger members of the Convolutidae is Convoluta convoluta (Abildgaard, 1806) (Fig. 1a), a well-known European species that was recently recognized as an invasive species in the western North Atlantic Ocean (Rivest et al. 1999). Typically epiphytic, C. convoluta is usually 2–4 mm in length and uses its enrolled lateral sides to create a sort of hood that facilitates the capture of copepods, small molluscs, and diatoms. Due to the presence of endosymbiotic diatoms in its tissue, the body of C. convoluta is very dark, obscuring the pair of red ocelli that flank either side of the statocyst, a simple georeceptor found in nearly all species of acoels.

image

Figure 1. Representatives of the family Convolutidae sensu Dörjes 1968. (a) Ventral view of a typical ‘Large-bodied convolutid,’Convoluta convoluta. From Graff 1882. Scale bar is assumed; average length of C. convoluta is 2–6 mm, but some reach lengths of 9 mm. (b) Ventral view of a typical ‘small-bodied convolutid,’Conaperta earnhardti. (c) Conaperta earnhardti shown at same size scale as A

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While many species of Convolutidae are similar to C. convoluta with regard to size, shape, and possession of ocelli and photosynthetic endosymbiotic algae, an even greater number are more like Conaperta earnhardti Hooge and Smith, 2004 (Fig. 1b), which lives in the interstitial spaces of marine sediments, is less than 1 mm long, and lacks ocelli or algal symbionts. Despite these morphological differences, all Convolutidae share a feature of the male copulatory organ, namely that it is a muscular, often glandular, tube-shaped penis, usually invaginated into a muscular seminal vesicle.

In a phylogenetic investigation of the Acoela using nuclear 18S rDNA gene sequences, Hooge et al. (2002) produced a gene tree that revealed a polyphyletic Convolutidae (Fig. 2) – with small-bodied, meiofaunal convolutids, similar to C. earnhardti, grouping separately from larger, endosymbiont-containing acoels like C. convoluta. Hooge et al. (2002) found support for this apparent polyphyletic grouping of the Convolutidae in ultrastructural characters of spermatozoa, and this was later pursued by Petrov et al. (2004) who examined an additional four species of Convolutidae and confirmed that the Convolutidae fall into two unrelated groups: ‘Large-bodied convolutids’ having 9 + 0 axonemes and axial microtubules, and ‘Small-bodied convolutids’ with 9 + 2 axonemes and cortical microtubules (Table 1).

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Figure 2. The distribution of spermatozoa ultrastructure characters superimposed on the 18S rDNA tree of Hooge et al. (2002). Species names in bold denote those taxa for which sperm morphology is known

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Table 1.  Species of Convolutidae, sensu Dörjes 1968, for which patterns of microtubules in spermatozoa are known
Taxon
‘Large-bodied convolutids’– axial microtubules, 9 + 0 axonemes
 Convoluta boyeri Bush, 1984
 Convoluta convoluta (Abildgaard, 1806)
 Convoluta philippinensis Bush, 1984
 Neochildia fusca Bush, 1975
 Oligochoerus limnophilus Ax and Dörjes, 1966
 Polychoerus carmelensis Costello and Costello, 1938
 Polychoerus caudatus Mark, 1892
 Wulguru cuspidata Winsor, 1988
‘Small-bodied convolutids’– cortical microtubules, 9 + 2 axonemes
 Aphanostoma bruscai Hooge and Tyler, 2003
 Aphanostoma virescensØrsted, 1845
 Archaphanostoma agile (Jensen, 1878)
 Convoluta pulchra Smith and Bush, 1991
 Praeconvoluta tigrina Hooge and Tyler, 2003
 Pseudaphanstoma smithrii Hooge and Tyler, 2003

Clearly, 18S rDNA molecular sequences and features of spermatozoa ultrastructure are phylogenetically useful characters for dividing the Convolutidae into natural groupings that better reflect their evolution; however, from the standpoint of a taxonomist these characters are overly expensive and time-consuming to collect. In the present investigation, we remedy the polyphyly of the Convolutidae by revising the systematics of the family with characters that are more easily obtainable – specifically, newly identified morphological characters of male copulatory organs.

Materials and Methods

  1. Top of page
  2. AbstractZusammenfassung
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References
  9. Appendix

Most examined specimens (Table 2) were extracted from sediment using magnesium-chloride anesthetization (Sterrer 1971); however, Aphanostoma sanguineum was removed directly from the gut of its holothuroidean host, C. convoluta was collected from filamentous algae growing in the rock-covered shallow subtidal, Convoluta henseni was collected from the plankton, and Convoluta marginalis, of which histological sections were borrowed from the Russian Academy of Sciences, St Petersburg, Russia.

Table 2.  Acoel species for which copulatory musculature was examined by light microscopy of histological sections (H), or by fluorescence microscopy (F)
TaxonSourceMicroscopy technique
Anaperidae Dörjes, 1968
 Anaperus gardineri Graff, 1911Wadsworth Cove, ME, USAH, F
Convolutidae Graff, 1905
 Amphiscolops sp.Carrie Bow Cay, BZEF
 Aphanostoma bruscai Hooge and Tyler, 2003Wadsworth Cove, ME, USAF
 Aphanostoma sanguineum Beklemischev, 1915Crow Neck, ME, USAH, F
 Avagina marci Dörjes and Karling, 1975São Sebastião Island, BrazilF
 Conaperta divae (Marcus, 1950)São Sebastião Island, BrazilF
 Conaperta earnhardti Hooge and Smith, 2004Oak Island, NC, USAH, F
 Conaperta hortulus Hooge and Tyler, 2003Wadsworth Cove, ME, USAH, F
 Conaperta norvegica (Westblad, 1946)Wadsworth Cove, ME, USAH, F
 Conaperta vexillaria (Marcus, 1948)São Sebastião, São Paulo, BrazilF
 Conaperta westbladi (Marcus, 1949)São Sebastião Island, BrazilF
 Convoluta convoluta (Abildgaard, 1806)York Beach, ME, USAH, F
 Convoluta henseni Bohmig, 1895São Sebastião Channel, BrazilF
 Convoluta karpredi Hooge and Tyler, 2003Reid State Park, ME, USAH, F
 Convoluta marginalis Ivanov, 1952Sakhalin, RussiaH
 Convoluta pulchra Smith and Bush, 1991Otter Cove, ME, USAF
 Diatomovora amoena Kozloff, 1965Discovery Bay, WA, USAF
 Polychoerus caudatus Mark, 1892Oak Island, NC, USAH, F
 Praeaphanostoma wadsworthi Hooge and Tyler, 2003Wadsworth Cove, ME, USAF
 Praeconvoluta castinea Hooge and Tyler, 2003Wadsworth Cove, ME, USAF
 Praeconvoluta tigrina Hooge and Tyler, 2003Crow Neck, ME, USAF
 Praeconvoluta tornuva Tyler and Hooge, 1999Wadsworth Cove, ME, USAH, F
 cf. Pseudaphanostoma divae Marcus, 1946São Sebastião, São Paulo, BrazilF
 Raphidophallus actuosus Kozloff, 1965Bodega Bay, CA, USAH
 Wulguru cuspidata Winsor, 1988Bribie Island, Queensland, AustraliaH, F
Otocelididae Westblad, 1948
 Stomatricha hochbergi Hooge, 2003Bribie Island, Queensland, AustraliaH, F

For histological study, specimens were relaxed in isotonic magnesium chloride, fixed in phosphate-buffered 2.5% (v/v) glutaraldehyde, washed in phosphate buffer (Millonig's, 0.1 M), fixed in phosphate-buffered 1% (v/v) osmium tetroxide, dehydrated in acetone, and embedded in EMBed/Araldite epoxy resin. Dehydration was quickened by microwave radiation (Samsung oven, two 7-s irradiations at 650 W separated by a 20-s interim, with specimen-vial on ice and with water ballast of two filled 300-ml beakers; Giberson and Demaree 1995). Serial thick sections of 1.5 μm were made according to Smith and Tyler (1984) and stained in toluidine blue.

Copulatory musculature of worms was revealed through F-actin staining of whole mounts with fluorescently labeled phalloidin (Alexa 488; Molecular probes, Eugene, OR, USA) according to Hooge (2001). The specimens were first relaxed in magnesium chloride or magnesium sulphate solution isotonic to sea water, fixed for 1 h in 4% formaldehyde, rinsed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), attached to a coverslip with poly-l-lysine, permeabilized for 1 h with 0.2% Triton X-100 in PBS, stained for 1 h with phalloidin-Alexa, mounted under a second coverslip with Fluoromount-G, and viewed with a Leica TCS SP2 confocal microscope, or with an epifluorescence Leitz Ortholux microscope.

Results

  1. Top of page
  2. AbstractZusammenfassung
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References
  9. Appendix

Taxa with 9 + 0 spermatozoa

Large-bodied convolutids

The male copulatory organ of C. convoluta is located mid-ventrally in the posterior half of the body, immediately behind the female gonopore (Fig. 1a,3a). Several longitudinal fibres of the body wall extend into the male gonopore, and are continuous with the longitudinal musculature of the penis (Fig. 3b). The muscular penis of C. convoluta is much wider at its base and tapers towards the narrow tip; it is clearly not isodiametric over its length. It is invaginated into a seminal vesicle composed of a network of widely spaced muscle fibres (Fig. 3c). The penis musculature is made up of thin rings of inner circular fibres surrounded by an outer layer of longitudinal fibres that anastomose or cross over each other (Figs 3c,d and 9a). Confocal microscopy also reveals the actin-containing zonula-adherentes of the cilia-bearing epithelium that extends the entire length of the penis lumen (Fig. 3d).

image

Figure 3. Convoluta convoluta. Confocal microscopy images of Alexa-488-labelled phalloidin-stained muscles associated with the male copulatory organ. (a) View of ventral body wall. (b) Ventral body-wall musculature surrounding male gonopore. (c) Sagittal view of seminal vesicle and penis. (d) Sagittal view of everted penis. Inset: Magnified view of longitudinal penis musculature. Arrowhead marks cell web. cop, male copulatory organ; fgp, female gonopore; m, mouth; mgp, male gonopore; p, penis; po, prostatoid organ; sv, seminal vesicle

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image

Figure 9. Photomicrographs of sagittal histological sections showing penis musculature of male copulatory organs. (a) Convoluta convoluta. (b) Convoluta marginalis. p, penis; sv, seminal vesicle

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The penis of C. henseni is surrounded by a muscular seminal vesicle (Fig. 4a,b), and comprises many thin circular fibres that surround approximately 25 thick longitudinal fibres (Fig. 4b). As in C. convoluta, individual longitudinal fibres connect with other longitudinal fibres to form an anastomosing pattern (Fig. 4b).

image

Figure 4. Confocal microscopy images of Alexa-488-labeled phalloidin-stained muscles associated with the male copulatory organs of acoels with a 9 + 0 pattern of spermatozoa axonemes. Projections of musculature of Convoluta henseni (a, b) and Wulguru cuspidata (c–f). (a) Dorsal view of copulatory organs. (b) Dorsal view of male copulatory apparatus. (c) Ventral body-wall musculature surrounding gonopores. (d) Ventral view of penis musculature. (e) Projection of copulatory organ showing seminal vesicle and penis. Inset: Magnified view of longitudinal penis musculature. (f) Optical section of male copulatory organ showing longitudinal and circular muscles of penis. bn, bursal nozzle; cm, circular muscles; fgp, female gonopore; ffgp, false female gonopore; lm, longitudinal muscles; mgp, male gonopore; p, penis; pl, penis lumen; sv, seminal vesicle

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Wulguru cuspidata has a male copulatory organ similar to that of C. convoluta (Fig. 4c–f). The male gonopore opens directly to a rostrally directed penis that is not isodiametric, and is invaginated into a muscular seminal vesicle. Only the distal half of the penis lumen is ciliated. The penis musculature is composed of outer longitudinal fibres that anastomose or cross-over each other (Fig. 4e,f) and closely spaced inner anastomosing circular fibres (Fig. 4f).

The same general pattern of copulatory musculature found in C. convoluta and W. cuspidata was also found in Amphiscolops sp. (Fig. 5a,b), Stomatricha hochbergi (Fig. 5c,d), and Polychoerus caudatus (data not shown). The seminal vesicle musculature of Amphiscolops sp. is diffuse and less organized than that of C. convoluta and W. cuspidata (Fig. 5a), while in S. hochbergi the musculature is well developed and tightly spaced (Fig. 5c). In both Amphiscolops sp. and S. hochbergi the penis musculature is composed of inner circular muscle fibres and outer longitudinal fibres that anastomose or cross over each other (Fig. 5b,d).

image

Figure 5. Confocal microscopy images of Alexa-488-labelled phalloidin-stained muscles associated with the male copulatory organs of acoels with a 9 + 0 pattern of spermatozoa axonemes. (a) Projection of musculature associated with the copulatory organs of Amphiscolops sp. (b) Projection of penis musculature of Amphiscolops sp. Inset: Magnified view of longitudinal penis musculature. (c) Projection of ventral body-wall musculature and seminal vesicle of Stomatricha hochbergi. (d) Optical section of seminal vesicle and penis of Stomatricha hochbergi. (e) Optical section of adenodactyls and seminal vesicle of Anaperus gardineri. (f) Optical section of seminal vesicle of Anaperus gardineri. ad, adenodactyls, bn, bursal nozzle; fgp, female gonopore; lm, longitudinal muscles; p, penis; sv, seminal vesicle

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Anaperidae

For comparison with an outgroup of the Convolutidae we examined Anaperus gardineri (Graff, 1911), a large interstitial acoel that has spermatozoa with 9 + 0 axonemes and axial microtubules. The male copulatory organ of A. gardineri is composed of actin-sclerotized needles surrounding a muscular seminal vesicle that is similar to that of the other ‘large-bodied convolutids’ we examined (Fig. 5e,f); however, the lack of an invaginated penis in A. gardineri precludes a comparison with the penis musculature of the other examined taxa.

Taxa with 9 + 2 spermatozoa

Small-bodied convolutids

Convoluta karpredi has a thick muscular seminal vesicle that surrounds a curved, tubular, isodiametric penis (Fig. 6) with a lumen containing glandular secretions. The penis musculature is composed of c. 40 thick outer longitudinal fibres that do not anastomose or cross over each other (Fig. 6d) and that anchor to the distal side of the seminal vesicle (Fig. 6b) and extend the entire length of the penis, surrounding numerous inner circular muscle fibres (Fig. 6e).

image

Figure 6. Convoluta karpredi. Through-series of selected optical sections of male copulatory organ in whole-mount stained with Alexa-488-labelled phalloidin and viewed with confocal microscopy. mgp, male gonopore; p, penis, sv, seminal vesicle

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In addition to C. karpredi, we examined the male copulatory organ musculature in 17 species of ‘small-bodied convolutids’ (Table 2): C. pulchra (Fig. 7a), Praeconvoluta castinea (Fig. 7b), Praeaphanostoma wadsworthi (Fig. 7c), cf. Pseudaphanostoma divae (Fig. 7d), Conaperta westbladi (Fig. 7e), Conaperta vexillaria (Fig. 7f), Conaperta divae (Fig. 8a), Conaperta norvegica (Fig. 8b), Aphanostoma bruscai (Fig. 8c), Diatomovora amoena (Fig. 8d), Praeconvoluta tornuva (Fig. 8e), C. marginalis (Fig. 9b), as well as Avagina marci, C. earnhardti, Conaperta hortulus, Praeconvoluta tigrina, and Raphidophallus actuosus (data not shown). The copulatory organs of these species differed with regard to spacing and thickness of muscle fibres, as well as the size and shape of seminal vesicles and penes; however, in all the species examined, a muscular seminal vesicle surrounded an isodiametric tubular penis, with the penis musculature composed of inner circular fibres surrounded by longitudinal fibres that did not anastomose or cross over each other. In some cases, the longitudinal muscle fibres of the penis could be seen to branch (Fig. 7e,f), but this occurred only at the base of the penis, where the penis muscles connected to muscles of the seminal vesicle and is clearly different than the anastomosing muscles found in the ‘large-bodied convolutids’.

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Figure 7. Confocal microscopy images of Alexa-488-labeled phalloidin-stained muscles associated with the male copulatory organs of ‘Small-bodied convolutids’. (a) Convoluta pulchra. (b) Praeconvoluta castinea. (c) Praeaphanostoma wadsworthi. (d) Pseudaphanostoma divae. (e) Conaperta westbladi. (f) Conaperta vexillaria. Arrowheads mark branching longitudinal penis muscles at connection between penis and seminal vesicle. p, penis; sv, seminal vesicle

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image

Figure 8. Confocal and epifluorescence microscopy images of Alexa-488-labelled phalloidin-stained muscles associated with the male copulatory organs of ‘Small-bodied convolutids’. (a) Conaperta divae. (b) Conaperta norvegica. (c) Aphanostoma bruscai (d) Diatomovora amoena. (e) Praeconvoluta tornuva

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Discussion

  1. Top of page
  2. AbstractZusammenfassung
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References
  9. Appendix

Along with 18S rDNA sequence data and ultrastructural characters of spermatozoa, the morphology of longitudinal penis musculature provides further evidence that the family Convolutidae is a non-natural group in need of revision. Confocal microscopy is a valuable tool for providing clear images of the penis muscles of acoels, but these same features of penis musculature – anastomosing longitudinal fibres and non-anastomosing longitudinal muscle fibres – can also be discerned in easily prepared conventional epifluorescence images (Fig. 8e) as well as standard histological sections (Fig. 9). As such, we now have a relatively simple means of distinguishing ‘large-bodied convolutids’ from ‘small-bodied convolutids’ without acquiring sequence data or ultrastructural images of sperms.

Emended diagnoses

Based upon the evidence listed above, we propose systematic revisions to the family Convolutidae as detailed in Appendix 1. This revision includes emended diagnoses for two genera within the Convolutidae, Convoluta and Conaperta, and the erection of a new family and genus, Isodiametridae fam. nov. and Isodiametra gen. nov., respectively. Morphological characters important for the classification of genera within Convolutidae and Isodiametridae fam. nov. are tabulated in Tables 3 and 4.

Table 3.  Taxonomically important characters for distinguishing genera within the family Convolutidae
GeneraCharacters
12345678910111213141516171819202122
  1. Characters: 1, maximum length; 2, enrolled lateral sides; 3, disc-shaped, planktonic; 4, statocyst; 5, ocelli; 6, frontal organ; 7, algal endo-symbionts; 8, pharynx; 9, number of female gonopores; 10, seminal bursa; 11, number of bursal nozzles; 12, T-shaped bilobed bursa; 13, number of male gonopores; 14, terminal gonopore at posterior end; 15, seminal vesicle; 16, two penes; 17, female gonopore posterior to male gonopore; 18, common male/female gonopore; 19, caudal cirri; 20, prostatoid organs; 21, dorsal body-cilia absent; 22, anterior tubular-organ; (+), present; (−), absent.

Amphiscolops Graff, 1904>2+/−+/−++/−1–2+2–111–2+
Brachypea Antonius, 1968<2+++++1+11
Conaperta Antonius, 1968>2+/−++++/−0+10+++/−
ConvolutaØrsted, 1843>2+/−++/−++/−1+11++/−
Haplodiscus Weldon, 1888>2+++0/1+/−01+/−
Heterochoerus Haswell, 1905>2+/−++1+4–18+1+
Neochildia Bush, 1975>2++001+++
Oligochoerus Beklemischev, 1963>2++++1+1–40+/−1++/−
Oxyposthia Ivanov, 1952>2++001++
Polychoerus Mark, 1892>2++/−1+2–501++
Stomatricha Hooge, 2003<2++++1+11+++
Wulguru Winsor, 1988<2++++2+2+1+
Table 4.  Taxonomically important characters for distinguishing genera within the family Isodiametridae fam. nov
GeneraCharacters
12345678910111213141516171819202122
  1. Characters: 1, maximum length (mm); 2, eyespots; 3, gonopores: combined (c), female separate from male (s), male present and female absent (m); 4, seminal bursa: absent (−), with definite wall (w), with syncytial wall (s); 5, bursal appendage: absent (−), sclerotized nozzle (n), sclerotized, invaginated spermatic duct (i), non-sclerotized muscular or cellular appendage (c); 6, multiple bursal nozzles; 7, male gonopore: ventral (v), terminal (t), subterminal (s), supraterminal (p); 8, ovaries paired (p) or unpaired (u); 9, testes paired (p) or unpaired (u); 10, ciliated vagina; 11, vagina muscular or with sphincter; 12, seminal vesicle; 13, false seminal vesicle; 14, male antrum: absent (−), short (s), long (l); 15, ciliated male antrum; 16, lumen of penis partially ciliated; 17, penis appears to be simple inpocketing of epidermis; 18, sclerotized needles in lumen of penis; 19, proximal part of copulatory organ is a prostatic vesicle; 20, ball of sperm at proximal end of copulatory organ, surrounded by parenchyma and muscle fibres; 21, gland organ opens at male pore on posterior side of penis; 22, parasitic; (+), present; (−), absent.

Alluna Faubel and Regier, 1983<1mvup++
Ancylocirrus Kozloff, 2000<1+cwvpp++s
AphanostomaØrsted, 1845>1+/−c/swcvpp++s+
Archaphanostoma Dörjes, 19681msv/ppp+s/l+/−
Avagina Leiper, 1902<1mvpp++/−
Baltalimania Ax, 1959>1mvpp+l++
Bursosaphia Dörjes, 1968<1cwvpp+++s
Diatomovora Kozloff, 1965<1cwn+vpp++s+
Faerlea Westblad, 19451mvpp+s+/−+/−
Isodiametra gen. nov.<1c/swnvpp+/−+s+/−
Postaphanostoma Dörjes, 1968>1s/mwi/cvup+/−+-/s+/−
Praeaphanostoma Dörjes, 1968>1c/swvp/up+/−+/−+s+/−
Praeconvoluta Dörjes, 1968>1cw-/cvpp+/−+s+/−
Proaphanostoma Dörjes, 19721swcvpp+++
Proconvoluta Dörjes, 1968>1swcvpp+++
Pseudaphanostoma Westblad, 1946>1mv/t/sp/up/u++/−s/l+
Pseudoposthia Westblad, 1946<1mvpp++
Raphidophallus Kozloff, 1965<1cwnvpp+s++
Rimicola Bohmig, 1908<1mvpp+s

Revision of the Family Convolutidae Graff, 1905

Diagnosis

Acoels with a ventral mouth opening. Body-wall musculature with circular, longitudinal, and longitudinal cross-over muscle fibres in both the dorsal and ventral body wall, and U-shaped fibres in the ventral body wall. Male copulatory organ with muscular, often glandular, tubular penis. Penis musculature with inner circular fibres and outer longitudinal fibres that anastomose or cross over each other. When present, a muscular seminal vesicle surrounds all of, or a portion of, the penis. Male gonopore ventral, subterminal, or terminal at posterior end; usually positioned behind opening to female seminal bursa. Spermatozoa with 9 + 0 axonemes and axial microtubules. Algal symbionts often present. Ocelli, when present, contain reflective platelets in the pigment cell and lack cilia or microvilli as receptor organelles.

Revision of the Genus ConvolutaØrsted, 1843

Diagnosis

Bursa with sclerotized bursal nozzle. Separate male and female gonopores, positioned ventrally; male gonopore positioned posterior to female. Male copulatory organ consisting of a tubular, muscular penis that is often glandular and may have inner ciliation. Penis invaginated into a muscular seminal vesicle. Gonopores and mouth opening with or without prostatoid (stimulatory) organs. Insunk brain. Frontal organ usually present. Lateral edges usually enrolled. Usually with algal symbionts. Often with pigmented ocelli.

Revision of the Genus Conaperta Antonius, 1968

Diagnosis

Bursa with a sclerotized bursal nozzle. Common male and female gonopore, positioned ventrally. Opening to male copulatory organ positioned posteriorly to opening to seminal bursa. Male copulatory organ consists of a muscular, often glandular, tubular penis, always unciliated, surrounded by a muscular seminal vesicle. Stimulatory organs sometimes present. Insunk brain. Lateral edges often slightly enrolled. Usually with algal symbionts. Usually with pigmented ocelli.

Erection of the Family Isodiametridae fam. nov.

Diagnosis

Acoels with a ventral mouth opening. Body-wall musculature with circular, longitudinal, and longitudinal cross-over muscle fibres in both the dorsal and ventral body wall and U-shaped fibres in the ventral body wall. Male copulatory organ with muscular, isodiametric, tubular penis, often very glandular. Penis musculature with inner circular and outer non-anastomosing longitudinal fibres. Penis is invaginated into a muscular seminal vesicle, if present. Male gonopore ventral, subterminal, supraterminal, or terminal at posterior end. Spermatozoa with 9 + 2 axonemes and cortical microtubules. Never with symbiotic algae. Ocelli, when present, do not contain platelets in the pigment cell.

Etymology

The name comes from the isodiametric nature of the penis – that is, having approximately the same diameter along its entire length.

Type genus of the family

Isodiametra gen. nov.

Erection of the Genus Isodiametra gen. nov.

Diagnosis

Bursa with a single sclerotized bursal nozzle. Male and female gonopores separate or combined, positioned ventrally. Male copulatory organ with muscular, glandular, isodiametric, tubular penis, without inner ciliation, surrounded by a muscular seminal vesicle. Insunk brain. Always without enrolled lateral edges, sclerotized penis needles, algal symbionts, or ocelli.

Etymology

Name refers to the family name Isodiametridae. The gender is feminine.

Type species

Isodiametra norvegica (Westblad, 1946) gen. nov., comb. nov.

Taxonomic remarks

The revised diagnoses emphasize the importance of morphological differences in sperm ultrastructure and penis morphology for distinguishing taxa, but this revision also calls attention to the distribution of two other characters: ocelli and algal symbionts.

Ocelli are found in numerous species in the Convolutidae (Table 3) and Sagittiferidae, but rather than being rhabdomeric or ciliary photoreceptor cells as found in rhabditophoran platyhelminths (Rieger et al. 1991; Sopott-Ehlers 1991), they apparently bear neither microvilli nor cilia, and the pigment cell is distinctive in containing reflective platelets as well as pigment granules (Yamasu et al. 1979; Popova and Mamkaev 1985; Yamasu 1991). By contrast, only two members of the Isodiametridae fam. nov. are known to have eyespots (Ancylocirrus ornatus and Aphanostoma virescens; Table 4), but these are diffuse regions of pigmentation, like that described for Otocelis rubropunctata (Schmidt, 1852) – large regions of pigmentation that are composed of a collection of ciliated epidermal cells containing pigment granules and lacking platelets (Lanfranchi 1990). The ocelli of the Convolutidae and Sagittiferidae are therefore almost certainly not homologous to the eyespots of the Isodiametridae fam. nov., thus providing another useful character for distinguishing members of those families.

The presence of algal symbionts in the tissues of acoels appears to be another systematically useful character. Symbionts occur commonly in members of the revised Convolutidae (Table 3), but are not known to occur in any members of the Isodiametridae fam. nov. Symbionts have also been found in the Sagittiferidae, Antroposthiidae [one species, Adenopea cenata (Marcus, 1955)], and Haploposthiidae (two species, Pseudohaplogonaria sutcliffei Hanson, 1961, and Waminoa litus Winsor, 1990).

It has long been recognized that the genus Convoluta was in need of revision (Antonius 1968; Smith and Bush 1991). In the opinion of Antonius, the genus Convoluta could be divided into three distinct groups: An ‘antrum-penis group,’ containing species in which the penis is an internally ciliated epidermal invagination, a ‘vesicula-penis group’, containing taxa in which the penis is formed mostly from parenchymal musculature and that sometimes has a glandular epithelium, and third group with intermediate morphology. Smith and Bush (1991) stated that Antonius's revision was a good first step toward a more complete revision, although they recognized that the ‘antrum-penis’ could not be a true epidermal invagination, as it is only the longitudinal muscles of the body wall that could contribute to the penis musculature, and not the circular muscles (see Doe 1981, for discussion). In our revision, the majority of the Convoluta species considered by Antonius, regardless of their ‘vesicula-penis’ or ‘antrum-penis’ status, remain in the Convoluta. Instead, only the species of Convoluta that have non-anastomosing longitudinal penis muscles were moved to the Isodiametridae fam. nov. Characters useful for distinguishing genera within the Convolutidae, and Isodiametridae fam. nov. are given in Tables 3 and 4, respectively.

The number of gonopores is used as the distinguishing character for the genera Convoluta (two gonopores) and Conaperta (one gonopore). Some species of these genera have been transferred into the new genus Isodiametra gen. nov., without regard for gonopore number. Instead, it is the presence of a single sclerotized bursal nozzle that is the diagnostic character of the genus. Two species in Isodiametra gen. nov., I. karpredi comb. nov., and I. pulchra comb. nov., have gonopores that are positioned so closely together that they are easily confused for a single gonopore in histological sections.

Reassignment of StomatrichaHooge, 2003 (Otocelididae) to Convolutidae

In the species description of S. hochbergi, Hooge (2003) noted that its enrolled sides and possession of photosynthetic algal symbionts were characters not previously found in the Otocelididae and were more characteristic of species in the Convolutidae and Sagittiferidae. Nevertheless, the species was placed in the Otocelididae because of the position of the female gonopore behind the male copulatory organ, a diagnostic feature of that family.

An investigation of acoel spermatozoa ultrastructure (Petrov et al. 2004) revealed that the sperm of S. hochbergi has a 9 + 0 pattern of axonemes, a pattern not previously found in the Otocelididae, but diagnostic for the families Anaperidae, Convolutidae, and Sagittiferidae. In fact, the sperm of S. hochbergi is nearly identical to that of two members of the Convolutidae, C. boyeri and C. philippinensis (see Petrov et al. 2004).

Stomatricha hochbergi's possession of a copulatory organ with anastomosing longitudinal penis muscles (Fig. 5d) is also evidence that it should be transferred to the family Convolutidae. However, the phylogenetic position of S. hochbergi within the Convolutidae is unclear, given that the arrangement of its copulatory organs differs from that of other members of the family. The transfer of S. hochbergi to the Convolutidae makes the morphological character ‘seminal bursa opening posterior to the male copulatory organ either through a common genital or through a separate female pore’ a homoplasious character in the Acoela – no longer a synapomorphy for the Otocelididae – and as such, the Otocelididae is now in need of taxonomic revision.

Reassignment of Convoluta opisthandroporaMamkaev 1971 (Convolutidae) to the genus PseudohaplogonariaDörjes, 1968 (Haploposthiidae)

In following with Westblad's (1948) systematic classification of the Acoela, Mamkaev's (1967) systematic revision placed greater importance on the seminal bursa than the male copulatory organ. As such, he divided the Acoela into two suborders (Bursalia and Abursalia), based upon the presence or absence of a seminal bursa. Pursuant to this system, Mamkaev (1971) grouped C. opisthandropora, which has a seminal bursa as well as a sclerotized bursal nozzle, with other bursa-bearing species, although he recognized the similarity of C. opisthandropora's copulatory organ to those of haploposthiids.

The testes of C. opisthandropora are paired, but merge at mid-body to form an unpaired bundle that extends to the proximal end of a tubular ciliated male antrum that then leads to a terminal gonopore. The sperm in this unpaired bundle are aligned in parallel and packed in such a way that they resemble a sclerotized stylet. The sperm bundle, as well as the proximal end of the male antrum is surrounded by a ring of glands that extend into the lumen of the antrum. Distal to this are additional needle-like glandular secretions that also enter the proximal half of the antrum lumen.

In the classification system presently used (Dörjes 1968), greater systematic importance is given to the male copulatory organ. As such, C. opisthandropora's tubular male antrum and lack of an invaginated penis is consistent with members of the Haploposthiidae. The morphology of C. opisthandropora is most compatible with the genus Pseudohaplogonaria, which contains species having a seminal bursa and bursal nozzle, but an absent or weakly developed seminal vesicle. We now transfer C. opisthandropora to the genus Pseudohaplogonaria.

Reassignment of Aphanostoma sanguineum Beklemischev, 1915 to the genus Pseudactinoposthia (Actinoposthiidae)

A parasite of the holothuroidean Chirodota laevis, A. sanguineum has a diminutive copulatory organ that has been difficult to place systematically (Hooge 2001). Aphanostoma sanguineum has separate male and female genital pores, although in some specimens the pores are positioned so closely together that they may be mistaken as a common genital pore, as was the case in Hooge's (2001) redescription of this species. 18S rDNA sequence data suggests a close relationship between A. sanguineum and members of the Actinoposthia (Hooge et al. 2002), and this relationship is further supported by A. sanguineum's possession of a penis comprising sclerotized needles (Fig. 10) rather than a muscular tube. We herein transfer A. sanguineum to the genus PseudactinoposthiaDörjes 1968 (Actinoposthiidae Hooge, 2001), a rather heterogeneous group that is united in having a seminal bursa that is not equipped with a bursal nozzle.

image

Figure 10. Pseudactinoposthia sanguineum comb. nov. Photomicrograph of transverse histological section, showing needles of male copulatory organ. pn, penis needles

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Acknowledgements

  1. Top of page
  2. AbstractZusammenfassung
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References
  9. Appendix

We are grateful to Brian Rivest for collecting specimens of C. convoluta, and to Julian Smith, Rick Hochberg, and Carlos Rocha who helped in the collection of other specimens. Thanks to Steve Schilling for inputting information on convolutids and isodiametrids into the Turbellarian Taxonomic Database. Thanks to Anatoly Petrov for translating Russian texts. Brazilian specimens were collected with support from the State of São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) within the BIOTA/FAPESP – The Biodiversity Virtual Institute Program (http://www.biota.org.br). This is contribution no. 717, Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems Program, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant nos 0118804 and 9977643.

References

  1. Top of page
  2. AbstractZusammenfassung
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References
  9. Appendix
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  • Doe, D. A., 1981: Comparative ultrastructure of the pharynx simplex in Turbellaria. Zoomorphology 97, 133193.
  • Dörjes, J., 1968: Die Acoela (Turbellaria) der deutschen Nordseeküste und ein neues System der Ordnung. Z. Zool. Syst. Evolutionsforsch. 6, 56452.
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  • Hooge, M. D., 2001: Evolution of body-wall musculature in the Platyhelminthes (Acoelomorpha, Catenulida, Rhabditophora). J. Morphol. 249, 171194.
  • Hooge, M. D., 2003: Two new families, three new genera, and four new species of acoel flatworms (Acoela, Platyhelminthes) from Queensland, Australia. Cah. Biol. Mar. 44, 275298.
  • Hooge, M. D.; Haye, P.; Tyler, S.; Litvaitis, M. K.; Kornfield, I., 2002: Molecular systematics of the Acoela (Platyhelminthes) and its concordance with morphology. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 24, 333342.
  • Lanfranchi, A., 1990: Ultrastructure of the epidermal eyespots of an acoel platyhelminth. Tissue cell 22, 541546.
  • Mamkaev, Yu. V., 1967: Essays on the morphology of acoelous Turbellaria. Trudy Zool. Inst. Akad. Nauk. SSR 44, 26116 [In Russian].
  • Mamkaev, Yu. V., 1971: On the Convoluta (Turbellaria, Acoela) from the South Primorsk. Fauna and Flora of the Possjet Bay of the Sea of Japan. Issled. Fauny. Morei. 8, 3154 [In Russian].
  • Petrov, A.; Hooge, M. D.; Tyler, S., 2004: Ultrastructure of sperms in Acoela (Acoelomorpha) and its concordance with molecular systematics. Invert. Biol. 123, 183197.
  • Popova, N. V.; Mamkaev, Yu. V., 1985: Ultrastructure and primitive features of the eyes of Convoluta convoluta (Turbellaria, Acoela). Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 283, 756759. [Translated from Russian in Plenum Publishing Corporation version (1986), 557–560].
  • Rieger, R. M.; Tyler, S.; Smith, J. P. S. III; Rieger, G. E., 1991: Platyhelminthes: Turbellaria. In: Harrison, F. W.; Bogitsh, B. J. (eds) Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Vol. 3: Platyhelminthes and Nemertinea. New York: Wiley-Liss, pp. 7140.
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  • Smith, J. P. S.; Bush, L., 1991: Convoluta pulchra n. sp. (Turbellaria: Acoela) from the East coast of North America. Trans. Am. Micros. Soc. 110, 1226.
  • Smith, J. P. S.; Tyler, S., 1984: Serial sectioning and staining of resin-embedded material for light microscopy: recommended procedures for micrometazoans. Mikroskopie 41, 259270.
  • Sopott-Ehlers, B., 1991: Comparative morphology of photoreceptors in free-living Plathelminthes – a survey. Hydrobiologia 227, 231239.
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Appendix

  1. Top of page
  2. AbstractZusammenfassung
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and Methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References
  9. Appendix
Table Appendix1..  Revised systematics
Family Convolutidae Graff, 1905
Amphiscolops Graff, 1904
 Amphiscolops cinereus (Graff, 1874) (type species of genus)
 Amphiscolops bermudensis Hyman, 1939
 Amphiscolops carvalhoi Marcus, 1952
 Amphiscolops evelinae Marcus, 1947
 Amphiscolops fuligineus Peebles, 1913
 Amphiscolops gemelliporus Marcus, 1954
 Amphiscolops japonicus Kato, 1947
 Amphiscolops langerhansi (Graff, 1882)
 Amphiscolops marinelliensis Beltagi and Khafagi, 1984
 Amphiscolops mosaicus Kozloff, 1998
 Amphiscolops trifurcatus (Beltagi, 1983)
 Amphiscolops zeii Riedl, 1956
Conaperta Antonius, 1968
 Conaperta flavibacillum (Jensen, 1878) (type species of genus)
 Conaperta kranaAntonius 1968
 Conaperta lineata (Peebles, 1915)
 Conaperta thelaAntonius 1968
Brachypea Antonius, 1968
 Brachypea kenomaAntonius 1968 (type species of genus)
ConvolutaØrsted, 1843
 Convoluta convoluta (Abildgaard, 1806) (type species of genus)
 Convoluta adaica Beklemischev, 1964 nomen nudum
 Convoluta aegypticaAntonius 1968
 Convoluta agilis An der Lan, 1936 nomem dubium
 Convoluta albomaculata (Pereyaslawzewa, 1892)
 Convoluta anotica Schmarda, 1859 nomem dubium
 Convoluta bathycola Steinböck, 1932 nomen nudum
 Convoluta bimaculata Graff, 1882 incertae sedis
 Convoluta bohmigi (Brauner, 1920)
 Convoluta borealis Sabussow, 1900
 Convoluta boyeri Bush, 1984
 Convoluta chiridotae (Beklemischev, 1915) incertae sedis
 Convoluta confusa Graff, 1904
 Convoluta dubia Brauner, 1926 nomem dubium
 Convoluta elegans Pereyaslawzewa, 1892
 Convoluta enelittaAntonius 1968
 Convoluta furugelmiMamkaev 1971
 Convoluta hamata An der Lan, 1936 nomem dubium
 Convoluta henseni Böhmig, 1895
 Convoluta hipparchia Pereyaslawzewa, 1892
 Convoluta kikaiensis Yamasu, 1982
 Convoluta lacazii Graff, 1891
 Convoluta maris-alba (Sabussow, 1899) incertae sedis
 Convoluta minimaWestblad 1948 nomen nudum
 Convoluta naviculae Yamasu, 1982
 Convoluta pelagica Lohner and Micoletzky, 1911
 Convoluta philippinensis Bush, 1984
 Convoluta punctata Riedl, 1959 incertae sedis
 Convoluta pygoporaAntonius 1968
 Convoluta semperi Graff, 1882 incertae sedis
 Convoluta sordida Graff, 1891
 Convoluta uljanini Graff, 1904 incertae sedis
 Convoluta variabilis (Pereyaslawzewa, 1892)
 Convoluta virescens Wilhelmi, 1913 nomen nudum
Haplodiscus Weldon, 1888
 Haplodiscus piger Weldon, 1888 (type species of genus)
 Haplodiscus acuminatus Bohmig, 1895
 Haplodiscus bocki Dörjes, 1970
 Haplodiscus incola Wilhelmi, 1913 nomen nudum
 Haplodiscus obtusus Bohmig, 1895
 Haplodiscus ovatus Bohmig, 1895
 Haplodiscus scutiformis Bohmig, 1895 nomen nudum
 Haplodiscus weldoni Bohmig, 1895
Heterochoerus Haswell, 1905
 Heterochoerus australis Haswell, 1905 (type species of genus)
 Heterochoerus sargassi (Hyman, 1939)
Neochildia Bush, 1975
 Neochildia fusca Bush, 1975 (type species of genus)
Oligochoerus Beklemischev, 1963
 Oligochoerus bakuensis Beklemischev, 1963
 Oligochoerus chlorella Beklemischev, 1963
 Oligochoerus conops Beklemischev, 1963
 Oligochoerus erythrophthalmus Beklemisch, 1960
 Oligochoerus limnophilus Ax and Dörjes, 1966
 Oligochoerus melanops Beklemischev, 1963
 Oligochoerus xanthella Beklemischev, 1963
Oxyposthia Ivanov, 1952
 Oxyposthia praedator Ivanov, 1952 (type species of genus)
Polychoerus Mark, 1892
 Polychoerus caudatus Mark, 1892 (type species of genus)
 Polychoerus carmelensis Costello and Costello, 1938
Stomatricha Hooge, 2003
 Stomatricha hochbergi Hooge, 2003 (type species of genus)
Wulguru Winsor, 1988
 Wulguru cuspidata Winsor, 1988 (type species of genus)
Family Isodiametridae fam. nov.
Isodiametra gen. nov.
 Isodiametra colorata (Ehlers and Dörjes, 1979) comb. nov.
 Isodiametra divae (Marcus, 1950) comb. nov.
 Isodiametra earnhardti (Hooge and Smith, 2004) comb. nov.
 Isodiametra helgolandica (Dörjes, 1968) comb. nov.
 Isodiametra hortulus (Hooge and Tyler, 2003) comb. nov.
 Isodiametra karpredi (Hooge and Tyler, 2001) comb. nov.
 Isodiametra marginalis (Ivanov, 1952) comb. nov.
 Isodiametra norvegica (Westblad, 1946) comb. nov.
 Isodiametra pulchra (Smith and Bush, 1991) comb. nov.
 Isodiametra urua (Marcus, 1954) comb. nov.
 Isodiametra variomorpha (Dörjes, 1968) comb. nov.
 Isodiametra vexillaria (Marcus, 1948) comb. nov.
 Isodiametra westbladi (Marcus, 1949) comb. nov.
Alluna Faubel and Regier, 1983
 Alluna sublitoralis Faubel and Regier, 1983 (type species of genus)
Ancylocirrus Kozloff, 2000
 Ancylocirrus ornatus Kozloff, 2000 (type species of genus)
AphanostomaØrsted, 1845
 Aphanostoma virescensØrsted, 1845 (type species of genus)
 Aphanostoma album Dörjes, 1968
 Aphanostoma armatum Steinböck and Lanser, 1932 nomen nudum
 Aphanostoma aurantiacum Verrill, 1893 nomen nudum
 Aphanostoma bruscai Hooge and Tyler, 2003
 Aphanostoma bimaculata Steinböck and Lanser, 1932 nomen nudum
 Aphanostoma cavernosum Meixner, 1938
 Aphanostoma chromocephalum Steinböck, 1933 incertae sedis
 Aphanostoma divaceum Verrill, 1893 nomem dubium
 Aphanostoma elegans Jensen, 1878
 Aphanostoma latumØrsted, 1845 nomem dubium
 Aphanostoma minima Steinböck, 1938 nomen nudum
 Aphanostoma olivaceum Verrill, 1893 nomen dubium
 Aphanostoma rhomboides Jensen, 1878
Archaphanostoma Dörjes, 1968
 Archaphanostoma agile (Jensen, 1878) (type species of genus)
 Archaphanostoma histobursalium Dörjes, 1968
 Archaphanostoma macrospiriferum (Westblad, 1946)
Avagina Leiper, 1902
 Avagina incola Leiper, 1902 (type species of genus)
 Avagina glandulifera Westblad, 1953
 Avagina marci Dörjes and Karling, 1975
 Avagina polyvacuola Ehlers and Dörjes, 1979
 Avagina sublitoralis Faubel, 1976
 Avagina vivipara Hickman, 1956
Baltalimania Ax, 1959
 Baltalimania kosswigi Ax, 1959 (type species of genus)
Bursosaphia Dörjes, 1968
 Bursosaphia baltalimaniaformis Dörjes, 1968 (type species of genus)
Diatomovora Kozloff, 1965
 Diatomovora amoena Kozloff, 1956 (type species of genus)
Faerlea Westblad, 1945
 Faerlea fragilis Westblad, 1945 (type species of genus)
 Faerlea antora Marcus, 1952
 Faerlea echinocardia Dörjes, 1972
 Faerlea glomerata Westblad, 1945
Postaphanostoma Dörjes, 1968
 Postaphanostoma atriomagnum Dörjes, 1968 (type species of genus)
 Postaphanostoma filum Dörjes, 1968
 Postaphanostoma glandulosum Dörjes, 1968
Praeaphanostoma Dörjes, 1968
 Praeaphanostoma chaetocaudatum Dörjes, 1968 (type species of genus)
 Praeaphanostoma brevifrons Dörjes, 1968
 Praeaphanostoma longum Dörjes, 1968
 Praeaphanostoma musculosum Ehlers and Dörjes, 1979
 Praeaphanostoma parvum Rieger and Ott, 1971
 Praeaphanostoma rubrum Dörjes, 1968
 Praeaphanostoma sizilianum (Riedl, 1954)
 Praeaphanostoma thalasophilum Ehlers and Dörjes, 1979
 Praeaphanostoma vitreum Ehlers and Dörjes, 1979
 Praeaphanostoma wadsworthi Hooge and Tyler, 2003
Praeconvoluta Dörjes, 1968
 Praeconvoluta karinae Dörjes, 1968 (type species of genus)
 Praeconvoluta castinea Hooge and Tyler, 2003
 Praeconvoluta minor Faubel, 1974
 Praeconvoluta schmidti Faubel, 1977
 Praeconvoluta stephania Faubel and Regier, 1983
 Praeconvoluta tigrina Hooge and Tyler, 2003
 Praeconvoluta tornuva Tyler and Hooge, 1999
Proaphanostoma Dörjes, 1972
 Proaphanostoma tenuissima (Westblad, 1946) (type species of genus)
Proconvoluta Dörjes, 1968
 Proconvoluta primitiva Dörjes, 1968 (type species of genus)
Pseudaphanostoma Westblad, 1946
 Pseudaphanostoma variabilis Westblad, 1946 (type species of genus)
 Pseudaphanostoma brevicaudatum Dörjes, 1968
 Pseudaphanostoma divae Marcus, 1952
 Pseudaphanostoma murmanicus (Mamkaev, 1967)
 Pseudaphanostoma pelophilum Dörjes, 1968
 Pseudaphanostoma psammophilum Dörjes, 1968
 Pseudaphanostoma smithrii Hooge and Tyler, 2003
Pseudoposthia Westblad, 1946
 Pseudoposthia macrogonopora Westblad, 1946 (type species of genus)
Raphidophallus Kozloff, 1965
 Raphidophallus actuosus Kozloff, 1965 (type species of genus)
Rimicola Bohmig, 1908
 Rimicola glacialis Bohmig, 1908 (type species of genus)