A phylogeny of anisopterous dragonflies (Insecta, Odonata) using mtRNA genes and mixed nucleotide/doublet models

Authors


Authors’ addresses: Bernhard Misof, Department of Entomology, Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum A. Koenig, Adenauerallee 160, 53113 Bonn, Germany. E-mail: b.misof.zfmk@uni-bonn.de; Manuela Brenk, Labor für Immunologie, Universität Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn, Germany. E-mail: manuela.brenk@ukb.uni-bonn.de; Sabrina Bleidissel, Institut für Evolutionsbiologie und Ökologie, In der Immenburg 1, 53121 Bonn, Germany. E-mail: sbleidissel@evolution.uni-bonn.de; Günther Fleck, Abteilung Entomologie, Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Adenauerallee 160, 53113 Bonn, Germany. E-mail: gfleck@uni-bonn.de; Maria Orland, Institut für Evolutionsbiologie und Ökologie, In der Immenburg 1, 53121 Bonn, Germany. E-mail: morland@evolution.uni-bonn.de; Berit Ullrich, Universität Bielefeld, Abteilung Evolutionsbiologie, Morgenbreede 45, 33615 Bielefeld, und, Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Adenauerallee 160, 53113 Bonn, Germany. E-mail: b.ullrich.zfmk@uni-bonn.de; Christiane Wallnish, Institut für Evolutionsbiologie und Ökologie, In der Immenburg 1, 53121 Bonn, Germany. E-mail: cwallnisch@evolution.uni-bonn.de

Abstract

The application of mixed nucleotide/doublet substitution models has recently received attention in RNA-based phylogenetics. Within a Bayesian approach, it was shown that mixed models outperformed analyses relying on simple nucleotide models. We analysed an mt RNA data set of dragonflies representing all major lineages of Anisoptera plus outgroups, using a mixed model in a Bayesian and parsimony (MP) approach. We used a published mt 16S rRNA secondary consensus structure model and inferred consensus models for the mt 12S rRNA and tRNA valine. Secondary structure information was used to set data partitions for paired and unpaired sites on which doublet or nucleotide models were applied, respectively. Several different doublet models are currently available of which we chose the most appropriate one by a Bayes factor test. The MP reconstructions relied on recoded data for paired sites in order to account for character covariance and an application of the ratchet strategy to find most parsimonious trees. Bayesian and parsimony reconstructions are partly differently resolved, indicating sensitivity of the reconstructions to model specification. Our analyses depict a tree in which the damselfly family Lestidae is sister group to a monophyletic clade Epiophlebia + Anisoptera, contradicting recent morphological and molecular work. In Bayesian analyses, we found a deep split between Libelluloidea and a clade ‘Aeshnoidea’ within Anisoptera largely congruent with Tillyard’s early ideas of anisopteran evolution, which had been based on evidently plesiomorphic character states. However, parsimony analysis did not support a clade ‘Aeshnoidea’, but instead, placed Gomphidae as sister taxon to Libelluloidea. Monophyly of Libelluloidea is only modestly supported, and many inter-family relationships within Libelluloidea do not receive substantial support in Bayesian and parsimony analyses. We checked whether high Bayesian node support was inflated owing to either: (i) wrong secondary consensus structures; (ii) under-sampling of the MCMC process, thereby missing other local maxima; or (iii) unrealistic prior assumptions on topologies or branch lengths. We found that different consensus structure models exert strong influence on the reconstruction, which demonstrates the importance of taxon-specific realistic secondary structure models in RNA phylogenetics.

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