Surficial Hydrocarbon Seep Infauna from the Blake Ridge (Atlantic Ocean, 2150 m) and the Gulf of Mexico (690–2240 m)

Authors

  • Christie A. Robinson,

    1. Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Joan M. Bernhard,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Lisa A. Levin,

    1. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Integrative Oceanography Division, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0218, USA.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Guillermo F. Mendoza,

    1. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Integrative Oceanography Division, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0218, USA.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Jessica K. Blanks

    1. Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.
    Search for more papers by this author

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Department of Geology and Geophysics, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MS 22, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA. E-mail: jbernhard@whoi.edu

Abstract

Abstract.  Infauna, including foraminifera and metazoans, were enumerated and identified from five types of seep habitats and two adjacent non-seep habitats. Collections were made with the deep submergence research vessel ‘Alvin’ from three areas of active seepage in the Gulf of Mexico (Alaminos Canyon [2220 m], Atwater Canyon [1930 m], and Green Canyon lease block 272 [700 m]) and on the Blake Ridge Diapir [2250 m], which is located off the southeastern coast of the United States. The seep habitats sampled included four types of microbial mats (Beggiatoa, Thioploca, thin and thick Arcobacter) and the periphery of a large mussel bed. Sediments under large rhizopod protists, xenophyophores, were sampled adjacent to the mussel bed periphery. A non-seep site, which was >1 km away from active seeps, was also sampled for comparison. Densities of most taxa were higher in the Gulf of Mexico seeps than in Blake Ridge samples, largely because densities in the thick microbial mats of Blake Ridge were significantly lower. Diversity was higher in the Thioploca mats compared to other microbial-mat types. Within an ocean basin (i.e., Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico) we did not observe significant differences in meiofaunal or macrofaunal composition in Beggiatoa versus Thioploca mats or thin versus thick Arcobacter mats. Foraminifera represented up to 16% of the seep community, a proportion that is comparable to their contribution at adjacent non-seep communities. In general, the observed densities and taxonomic composition of seep sites at the genus level was consistent with previous observations from seeps (e.g., the foraminifers Bolivina and Fursenkoina, the dorvilleid polychaete Ophryotrocha).

Ancillary