Invasive aspergillosis is rare in immunocompetent people but contributes to significant morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed patients. The majority (approximately 80%) of invasive Aspergillus infections is caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. The second most frequent (approximately 15–20%) pathogenic species is Aspergillus flavus and to a lesser extent, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus. Aspergillus flavus has emerged as a predominant pathogen in patients with fungal sinusitis and fungal keratitis in several institutions worldwide. To date, there has not been any publication exclusively reviewing the topic of A. flavus in the literature. This article reviews the microbiology, toxigenicity and epidemiology of A. flavus as well as describes the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and management of infections caused by this organism.