• 1
    De Hoog GS, Guarro J, Gene J, Figueras MJ. Atlas of Clinical Fungi, 2nd edn. Utrecht: Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, 2000.
  • 2
    Horner WE, Helbling A, Salvaggio JE, Lehrer SB. Fungal allergens. Clin Microbiol Rev 1995; 8: 16179.
  • 3
    Simon-Nobbe B, Denk U, Pöll V, Rid R, Breitenbach M. The spectrum of fungal allergy. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2008; 145: 5886.
  • 4
    ACOEM Council on Scientific Affairs. American College of Environmental and Occupational Medicine position statement. Adverse health effects associated with molds in the environment. Elk Grove Village (III): ACOEM, 2002.
  • 5
    Denning DW, O’Driscoll BR, Hogaboam CM, Bowyer P, Niven RM. The link between fungi and severe asthma: a summary of the evidence. Eur Respir J 2006; 27: 61526.
  • 6
    Luong A, Marple B. The role of fungi in chronic rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Clin Nort Am 2005; 38: 120313.
  • 7
    Schubert MS. Allergic fungal sinusitis. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2006; 30: 20516.
  • 8
    Schmid-Grendelmeier P, Scheynius A, Crameri R. The role of sensitization to Malassezia sympodialis in atopic eczema. Chem Immunol Allergy 2006; 91: 98109.
  • 9
    Greenberger PA. Alleric bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and funguses. Clin Chest Med 1988; 9: 599608.
  • 10
    Fischer G, Dott W. Relevance of airborne fungi and their secondary metabolites for environmental, occupational and indoor hygiene. Arch Microbiol 2003; 179: 7582.
  • 11
    Caballero ML, Gómez M, González-Muñoz M et al. Occupational sensitization to fungal enzymes used in animal feed industry. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2007; 144: 2319.
  • 12
    Moss RB. Pathophysiology and immunology of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Med Mycol 2005; 43(Suppl. 1): S2036.
  • 13
    Mari A, Schneider P, Wally V, Breitenbach M, Simon-Nobbe B. Sensitization to fungi: epidemiology, comparative skin tests, and IgE reactivity to fungal extracts. Clin Exp Allergy 2003; 33: 142938.
  • 14
    Crameri R, Weichel M, Flückiger S, Glaser AG, Rhyner C. Fungal allergies: a yet unsolved problem. Chem Immunol Allergy 2006; 19: 12133.
  • 15
    Terr AI. Are indoor molds causing a new disease? J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004; 113: 2216.
  • 16
    Bush RK, Portnoy JM, Saxon A, Terr AI, Wood RA. The medical effects of mold exposure. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 117: 32633.
  • 17
    Aalberse RC. Structural features of allergenic molecules. Chem Immunol Allergy 2006; 91: 13446.
  • 18
    Crameri R. Correlating IgE reactivity with three-dimensional structure. Biochem J 2003; 376: e12.
  • 19
    Karlsson-Borgy A, Jonsson P, Rolfsen W. Specific IgE antibodies to 16 widespread mold genera in patients with suspected mold allergy. Ann Allergy 1989; 63: 5216.
  • 20
    Esch RE. Manufacturing and standardizing fungal allergen products. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004; 113: 2105.
  • 21
    Greenberger PA, Patterson R. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Model of bronchopulmonary disease with defined serologic, radiologic, pathologic and clinical findings from asthma to fatal destructive lung disease. Chest 1987; 91(Suppl. 6): 165S71S.
  • 22
    Ryan MW, Marple BF. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis: diagnosis and management. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2007; 15: 1822.
  • 23
    Greenberger PA. Mold-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Allergy Asthma Proc 2004; 25: 21923.
  • 24
    Tee RD, Gordon DJ, Taylor AJ. Cross-reactivity between antigens of fungal extracts studied by RAST inhibition and immunoblot technique. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1987; 79: 62733.
  • 25
    O’Neil CE, Hughes JM, Butcher BT, Salvaggio JE, Lehrer SB. Basidiospore extracts: evidence for common antigenic/allergenic determinants. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1988; 85: 1616.
  • 26
    Huang X, Johansson SG, Zargari A, Nordvall SL. Allergen cross-reactivity between Pityrosporum orbiculare and Candida albicans. Allergy 1995; 50: 64856.
  • 27
    Brouwer J. Cross-reactivity between Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1996; 110: 16673.
  • 28
    Altmann F. The role of protein glycosylation in allergy. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2007; 142: 99115.
  • 29
    Kanbe T, Utsunomiya K, Ishiguro A. A crossreactivity at the immunoglobulin E level of the cell wall mannoproteins of Candida albicans with other pathogenic Candida and airborne yeast species. Clin Exp Allergy 1997; 27: 144957.
  • 30
    Malandain H. IgE-reactive carbohydrate epitopes – classification, cross-reactivity, and clinical impact. Allerg Immunol (Paris) 2005; 37: 1228.
  • 31
    Crameri R. Molecular cloning of Aspergillus fumigatus allergens and their role in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Chem Immunol 2002; 81: 7393.
  • 32
    Weichel M, Flückiger S, Crameri R. Molecular characterisation of mould allergens involved in respiratory complications. Recent Res Devel Resp Critical Care Med 2002; 2: 2945.
  • 33
    Yang X, Moffat K. Insights into specificity of cleavage and mechanism of cell entry from the crystal structure of the highly specific Aspergillus ribotoxin, restrictocin. Structure 1996; 4: 83752.
  • 34
    Flückiger S, Mittl PRE, Scapozza S et al. Comparison of the crystal structures of the human manganese superoxide dismutase ant the homologous Aspergillus fumigatus allergen at 2-Å resolution. J Immunol 2002; 168: 126772.
  • 35
    Glaser AG, Limacher A, Flückiger S, Scheynius A, Scapozza L, Crameri R. Analysis of the cross-reactivity and of the 1.5 Å crystal structure of the Malassezia sympodialis Mala s 6 allergen, a member of the cyclophilin pan-allergen family. Biochem J 2006; 396: 419.
  • 36
    Limacher A, Kloer DP, Flückiger S, Folkers G, Crameri R, Scapozza L. The crystal structure of Aspergillus fumigatus cyclophilin reveals 3D domain swapping of a central element. Structure 2006; 14: 18595.
  • 37
    Limacher A, Glaser GA, Meyer C et al. The crystal structure of Malassezia sympodialis thioredoxin (Mala s 13), a member of a new pan-allergen family. J Immunol 2007; 178: 38996.
  • 38
    Vilhelmsson M, Zargari A, Crameri R et al. Crystal structure of the major Malassezia sympodialis allergen Mala s 1 reveals a b-propeller fold; a novel fold among allergens. J Mol Biol 2007; 369: 107986.
  • 39
    Moser M, Crameri R, Menz G et al. Cloning and expression of recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus allergen I/a (rAsp f I/a) with IgE binding and type I skin test activity. J Immunol 1992; 149: 45060.
  • 40
    De Vouge MW, Thaker AJ, Curran IH et al. Isolation and expression of a cDNA clone encoding Alternaria alternata Alt a 1 subunit. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1996; 111: 38595.
  • 41
    Brander KA, Borbély P, Crameri R, Pichler WJ, Helbling A. IgE-binding proliferative responses and skin test reactivity to Cop c 1, the first recombinant allergen from the basidiomycete Coprinus comatus. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 104: 6306.
  • 42
    Bowyer P, Fraczek M, Denning DW. Comparative genomics of fungal allergens and epitopes shows widespread distribution of closely related allergen and epitope ortologues. BMC Genomics 2006; 7: 251.
  • 43
    Mayer C, Hemmann S, Faith A, Blaser K, Crameri R. Cloning, production characterization and IgE cross-reactivity of different manganese superoxide dismutases in individuals sensitized to Aspergillus fumigatus. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1997; 113: 2135.
  • 44
    Flückiger S, Fijten H, Whitley P, Blaser K, Crameri R. Cyclophilins, a new family of cross-reactive allergens. Eur J Immunol 2002; 32: 107.
  • 45
    Weichel M, Glaser AG, Ballmer-Weber BK, Schmid-Grendelmeier P, Crameri R. Wheat and maize thioredoxins: a novel cross-reactive cereal allergen family related to baker’s asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 117: 67681.
  • 46
    Simon-Nobbe B, Probst G, Kajava AV et al. IgE-binding epitopes of enolases, a class of highly conserved fungal allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000; 106: 88795.
  • 47
    Chiung YM, Lin BL, Yeh CH, Lin CY. Heat shock protein (hsp 70)-related epitopes are common allergenic determinants for barley and corn antigens. Electrophoresis 2000; 21: 297300.
  • 48
    Shen HD, Tam MF, Chou H, Han SH. The importance of serine proteinases as aeroallergens associated with asthma. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1999; 119: 25964.
  • 49
    Mayer C, Appenzeller U, Seelbach H et al. Humoral and cell-mediated autoimmune reactions to human acidic ribosomal P2 protein in individuals sensitized to Aspergillus fumigatus P2 protein. J Exp Med 1999; 189: 150712.
  • 50
    Hemmann S, Blaser K, Crameri R. Allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida boidinii share IgE-binding epitopes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997; 156: 195662.
  • 51
    Aalberse RC. Structural biology of allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000; 106: 22838.
  • 52
    Schmid-Grendelmeier P, Flückiger S, Disch R et al. Crameri R. IgE-mediated and T cell-mediated autoimmunity against manganese superoxide dismutase in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005; 115: 106875.
  • 53
    Park J, Park B, Jung K et al. GFGP: a web-based, comparative fungal genomics platform. Nucleic Acids Res 2008; 36(Database issue): D56271.
  • 54
    Xu D, Xu Y, Uberbacher EC. Computational tools for protein modeling. Curr Protein Pept Sci 2000; 1: 121.
  • 55
    Aalberse RC. Assessment of sequence homology and cross-reactivity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2005; 207: S14951.
  • 56
    Aalberse RC, Koshte V, Clemens JG. Immunoglobulin E antibodies that crossreact with vegetable foods, pollen and Hymenoptera venom. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1981; 68: 35664.
  • 57
    Bousquet J, Anto JM, Bachert C et al. Factors responsible for differences between asymptomatic subjects and patients presenting an IgE sensitization to allergens. A GA2LEN prject.. Allergy 2006; 61: 67180.
  • 58
    Van Der Veen MJ, Van Ree R, Aalberse RC et al. Poor biologic activity of cross-reactive IgE directed to carbohydrate determinants of glycoproteins. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997; 100: 32734.
  • 59
    Mari A. IgE to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants: analysis of the distribution and appraisal of the in vivo and in vitro reactivity. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002; 129: 28695.
  • 60
    Malandain H. IgE-reactive carbohydrate epitopes – classification, cross-reactivity and clinical impact (2nd part). Allerg Immunol (Paris) 2005; 37: 24756.
  • 61
    Yazdanbakhsh M, Kremser PG, Van Ree R. Allergy, parasites, and the hygene hypothesis. Science 2002; 296: 4904.
  • 62
    Kochuyt AM, Van Hoeyveld EM, Stevens EA. Prevalence and clinical relevance of specific immunoglobulin E to pollen caused by sting-induced specific immunoblobulin E to cross-reacting carbohydrate determinants in Hymenoptera venoms. Clin Exp Allergy 2005; 35: 4417.
  • 63
    Lintu P, Savolainen J, Kalimo K, Kortekangas-Savolainen O, Nermes M, Terho EO. Cross-reacting IgE and IgG antibodies to Pityrosporum ovale mannan and other yeasts in atopic dermatitis. Allergy 1999; 54: 106773.
  • 64
    Doekes G, Kaal MJ, Van Ieperen-van Dijk AG. Allergens of Pityrosporum ovale and Candida albicans. II. Physicochemical characterization. Allergy 1993; 48: 4018.
  • 65
    Shen HD, Lin WL, Tsai JJ, Liaw SF, Han SH. Allergenic components in three different species of Penicillium: crossreactivity among major allergens. Clin Exp Allergy 1996; 25: 44451.
  • 66
    O’Neil CE, Horner WE, Reed MA, Lopez M, Lehrer SB. Evaluation of Basidiomycete and Deuteromycete (Fungi Imperfecti) extracts for shared allergenic determinants. Clin Exp Allergy 1990; 20: 5338.
  • 67
    Mari A, Iacovacci P, Afferini C et al. Specific IgE to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants strongly affect the in vitro diagnosis of allergic diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 103: 1005111.
  • 68
    Sorensen HP, Mortensen KK. Advanced genetic strategies for recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli. J Biotechnol 2005; 115: 11128.
  • 69
    Dudler T, Chen WQ, Wang S et al. High-level expression in Escherichia coli and rapid purification of enzymatically active honey bee venom phospholipase A2. Biochim Biophys Acta 1992; 1165: 20110.
  • 70
    Müller U, Fricker M, Wymann D, Blaser K, Crameri R. Increased specificity of diagnostic tests with recombinant major bee venom allergen phospolypase A2. Clin Exp Allergy 1997; 27: 91520.
  • 71
    Dudler T, Altmann F, Carballido JM, Blaser K. Carbohydrate-dependent, HLA class II-restricted, human T cell response to the bee venom allergen phospolipase A2 in allergic patients. Eur J Immunol 1995; 25: 53842.
  • 72
    Achatz G, Oberkofler H, Lechnauer E et al. Molecular cloning of amjor and minor allergens of Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium herbarum. Mol Immunol 1995; 32: 2137.
  • 73
    Breitenbach M, Simon-Nobbe B. The allergens of Cladosporium herbarum and Alternaria alternata. Chem Immunol 2002; 81: 4872.
  • 74
    Schmid-Grendelmeier P, Crameri R. Recombinant allergens for skin testing. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2001; 125: 96111.
  • 75
    Johansson C, Sandström MH, Bartosik J et al. Atopy patch test reactions to Malassezia allergens differentiate subgroups of atopic dermatitis patients. Br J Bermatol 2003; 148: 47988.
  • 76
    Casagrande BF, Flückiger S, Linder MT et al. Sensitization to the yeast Malassezia sympodialis is specific for extrinsic and intrinsic atopic eczema. J Invest Dermatol 2006; 126: 241421.
  • 77
    Flückiger S, Scapozza L, Mayer C, Blaser K, Folkers G, Crameri R. Immunological and structural analysis of IgE-mediated cross-reactivity between manganese superoxide dismutases. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002; 128: 292303.
  • 78
    Crameri R, Faith A, Hemmann S et al. Humoral and cell-mediated autoimmunity in allergy to Aspergillus fumigatus. J Exp Med 1996; 184: 26570.
  • 79
    Mittermann I, Aichberger KJ, Bünder R, Mothes N, Renz H, Valenta R. Autoimmunity in atopic dermatitis. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2004; 4: 36771.
  • 80
    Zeller S, Glaser AG, Vilhelmsson M, Rhyner C, Crameri R. Immunoglobulin-E-mediated reactivity to self antigens: a controversial issue. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2008; 145: 8793.
  • 81
    Chiu LL, Perng DW, Yu CH, Su SN, Chow LP. Mold allergen Pen c 13, induces IL-8 expression in human airway epithelial cells by activating protease-activated receptor 1 and 2. J Immunol 2007; 178: 523744.
  • 82
    Sharma JV, Gupta R, Ihingran A et al. Cloning, recombinant expression and activity studies of a major allergen “enolase” from the fungus Curvularia lunata. J Clin Immunol 2006; 26: 3609.
  • 83
    Sevinc MS, Kumar V, Abebe M, Casley WL, Vijay HM. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding one IgE-binding fragment of Penicillium brevicompactum. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2005; 138: 1220.
  • 84
    Shen HD, Han SH. Characterization of allergens of Penicillium and Aspergillus species. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 1998; 31: 1415.
  • 85
    Andersson A, Rasool O, Schmidt M et al. Cloning, expression and characterization of two new IgE-binding proteins from the yeast Malassezia sympodialis with sequence similarities to heat shock proteins and manganese superoxide dismutase. Eur J Biochem 2004; 271: 188594.
  • 86
    Horner WE, Reese G, Lehrer SB. Identification of the allergen Psi c 2 from basidiomycete Psilocybe cubensis as a fungal cyclophilin. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1995; 107: 298300.
  • 87
    Lindborg M, Magnusson CGM, Zargari A et al. Selective cloning of allergens from the skin colonizing yeast Malassezia furfur by phage surface display technology. J Invest Dermatol 1999; 113: 15661.