Successful treatment of pulmonary zygomycosis in two transplant recipients with liposomal amphotericin B and partial surgical resection followed by posaconazole


Christine Lau, Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Virginia, PO Box 800679, Charlottesville, VA 22908-0679, USA.
Tel.: +1 413 924 8016. Fax: +1 434 243 6131.


Pulmonary zygomycosis is a relatively uncommon complication of solid organ or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and has a high associated mortality. Optimal therapy consists of complete resection of infected tissue and treatment with amphotericin B (AmB). We describe two patients, one of whom underwent orthotopic heart transplantation and the other who received a peripheral blood stem cell transplant, who were diagnosed with invasive pulmonary zygomycosis. Both patients were treated with a liposomal preparation of AmB and early partial resection of the infected structures followed by prolonged posaconazole maintenance therapy. Despite incomplete resection, this treatment regimen resulted in a favourable outcome in both patients, including survival of more than 17 months in one patient at last follow up. For patients in whom complete resection of pulmonary zygomycosis is not possible, subtotal resection and treatment with liposomal AmB followed by therapy with posaconazole may be an effective treatment option.