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Keywords:

  • In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing;
  • in vitro and in vivo resistance;
  • EUCAST

Summary

Candida and Aspergillus species are the most common causes of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. The introduction of new antifungal agents and recent reports of resistance emerging during treatment have highlighted the need for in vitro susceptibility testing. For some drugs, there is a supporting in vitroin vivo correlation available from studies of clinical efficacy. Both intrinsic and emergent antifungal drug resistance are encountered. Various testing procedures have been proposed, including macrodilution and microdilution, agar diffusion, disk diffusion and Etest. Early recognition of infections caused by pathogens that are resistant to one or more antifungals is highly warranted to optimise treatment and patient outcome.