• ×Triticosecale;
  • anther culture;
  • haploid induction;
  • plant regeneration;
  • genetic variability


The androgenic response of five varieties and 10 F1 intervarietal hybrids of 6 × triticale was analysed. The overall response involved three independent phenomena: the production of embryoids, the capability of embryoids to regenerate plants, and the production of green plants. Each of these factors appeared to be controlled by independent genetic systems. From a practical point of view, the product of these three factors, the number of green haploid plants per anther (GPA), is the most reliable variable for the evaluation of genotypes. Positive heterotic effects on GPA were observed in the hybrids, which may indicate that GPA is controlled predominantly by additive genes. No correlation was found between the number of green haploid plants produced by hybrids and that yielded by the best parental line. Therefore, it is difficult to predict the yield of green haploid plants that can be produced by a hybrid simply from the number produced by its parents.