• ×Triticosecale;
  • auxin analogues;
  • crosses with maize;
  • dicamba;
  • doubled haploids;
  • picloram


The aim of the present study of triticale × maize crosses was to find an appropriate growth regulator treatment to improve the yield of triticale haploids and the subsequent production of doubled haploids. The growth effect in unpollinated ovaries of triticale was examined after treatment with 1000 mg/1 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or 100 mg/1 solutions of the following auxin analogues: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid (dicamba), 4-chloro-o-tolyloxyacetic acid (MCPA), phenylacetic acid (PAA), 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5- T), respectively. Dicamba stimulated growth of the ovaries significantly more than picloram and both stimulated more growth than the other growth regulators tested. Neither dicamba nor picloram induced embryo development in unpollinated pistils. Dicamba and picloram solutions, at concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/1, were subsequently applied to pistils of triticale pollinated with maize. On average, between 17.1 and 21.5 embryos/100 fiorets were excised after treatment with 75 or 100 mg/1 solutions of picloram or dicamba but the concentrations of 20 and 50 mg were less effective. The frequencies of excised embryos did not differ between genotypes. Seventy-six green haploids were obtained from 100 embryos rescued in vitro on the 190–2 and modified B5 media, the first medium being superior. The plants were subjected to colchicine treatment at the 3–4 tiller stage. Out of 68 plants brought to maturity, 25 exhibited fertile sectors. In comparison with previous studies, picloram and dicamba significantly improved the efficiency of the triticale × maize crossing. The low dependence on the mother germplasm makes triticale × maize crossing an efficient alternative to the androgenetic methods of doubled haploid production in triticale.