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This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of the sperm cell dose and semen backflow on the pregnancy rate and number of embryos of sows inseminated once at 0–24 h before ovulation, using an intrauterine technique. The results were analysed from a total of 211 sows assigned to three groups inseminated with doses of 0.25 × 109 (T1), 0.5 × 109 (T2) and 1.0 × 109 (T3) spermatozoa. Semen backflow was observed in 95% of the females (143/151) evaluated for this purpose. The percentage of semen backflow is close to two-third of the volume and the percentage of sperm is around 15% of the infused sperm dose. Intrauterine insemination can be successfully performed provided that at least 0.5 billion of sperm cell dose is infused at an interval of 0–24 h before ovulation.