The objective of this study was to identify a predictor to forecast superovulation response on the basis of associations between superovulation performance and gene polymorphism. The PCR-RFLP method was applied to detect two reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of G59752C and T81637C (rs41614030) located in introns 3 and 4 of the bovine progesterone receptor (PGR) gene in 171 Chinese Holstein cows treated for superovulation and evaluate its associations with superovulation traits. In polymorphic locus 81637, all cows without superovulation response were g.81637TC and g.81637TT genotypes. Association analysis showed that these two SNPs had significant effects on the total number of ova (TNO) (p < 0.05), and the T81637C polymorphism was significantly associated with the number of transferable embryos (p < 0.05). In addition, significant additive effects (p < 0.05) on TNO were detected in the polymorphisms of G59752C and T81637C. These results showed for the first time that the G59752C and T81637C polymorphisms in PGR gene were associated with superovulation traits and indicated that PGR gene can be used as a predictor for superovulation in Chinese Holstein cows.