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The Origin of Indonesian Cattle and Conservation Genetics of the Bali Cattle Breed


Author’s address (for correspondence): Göran Andersson, Section of Molecular Animal Genetics and Bioinformatics, Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), PO Box 597, S-75124 Uppsala, Sweden. E-mail:


Both Bos indicus (zebu) and Bos javanicus (banteng) contribute to the Indonesian indigenous livestock, which is supposedly of a mixed species origin, not by direct breeding but by secondary cross-breeding. Here, the analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed banteng introgression of 10–16% in Indonesian zebu breeds with East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle having higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20–30%) and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura) or even complete (Galekan) maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. There was no evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng.