- Top of page
- Compartmentalized Metabolic Pathways
- Applications in Nanobiotechnology
- Future Directions
- Conflicts of interest
Mammalian sperm have evolved under strict selection pressures that have resulted in a highly polarized and efficient design. A critical component of that design is the compartmentalization of specific metabolic pathways to specific regions of the cell. Although the restricted localization of mitochondria to the midpiece is the best known example of this design, the organization of the enzymes of glycolysis along the fibrous sheath is the primary focus of this review. Evolution of variants of these metabolic enzymes has allowed them to function when tethered, enabling localized energy production that is essential for sperm motility. We close by exploring how this design might be mimicked to provide an energy-producing platform technology for applications in nanobiotechnology.