Mast cells express high-affinity IgE receptors (FcɛRI) on their surface and can be activated to secrete a variety of biologically active mediators by cross-linking of receptor-bound IgE. Recent studies in animal models indicate that mouse mast cells may play a protective role in host defense against bacteria through the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, mainly as a result of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4- or CD48-mediated activation. Moreover, several recent observations in animal models have indicated that mast cells may also play a pivotal role in coordinating the early phases of autoimmune diseases, particularly those involving auto-antibodies. We recently identified functional TLR4 and FcγRI on human mast cells, in which their expression had been upregulated by interferon-γ. We compared each of the receptor-mediated gene expression profiles with the FcɛRI-mediated gene expression profile using high-density oligonucleotide probe arrays and discovered that human mast cells may modulate the immune system in a receptor-specific manner.