School of Psychology and CBT Unit, Toowong Private Hospital, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. Email: email@example.com
Study of the integrated cognitive model of depression among Latin-Americans
Article first published online: 1 SEP 2005
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Volume 39, Issue 10, pages 932–939, October 2005
How to Cite
Oei, T. P.S., Hibberd, E. and O'Brien, A. J. (2005), Study of the integrated cognitive model of depression among Latin-Americans. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39: 932–939. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1614.2005.01661.x
- Issue published online: 1 SEP 2005
- Article first published online: 1 SEP 2005
- Received 7 February 2003; revised 21 February 2005; accepted 24 February 2005.
- automatic thoughts;
- dysfunctional attitudes;
- integrated cognitive model;
- negative life events
Objective: The objective of the present study is to test the validity of the integrated cognitive model (ICM) of depression proposed by Kwon and Oei with a Latin-American sample. The ICM of depression postulates that the interaction between negative life events with dysfunctional attitudes increases the frequency of negative automatic thoughts, which in turns affects the depressive symptomatology of a person. This model was developed for Western Europeans such as Americans and Australians and the validity of this model has not been tested on Latin-Americans.
Method: Participants were 101 Latin-American migrants living permanently in Brisbane, including people from Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Argentina and Guatemala. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire and the Life Events Inventory. Alternative or competing models of depression were examined, including the alternative aetiologies model, the linear mediational model and the symptom model.
Results: Six models were tested and the results of the structural equation modelling analysis indicated that the symptom model only fits the Latin-American data.
Conclusions: Results show that in the Latin-American sample depression symptoms can have an impact on negative cognitions. This finding adds to growing evidence in the literature that the relationship between cognitions and depression is bidirectional, rather than unidirectional from cognitions to symptoms.