Seventeen patients with primary lymphoma of bone are reviewed. In 15 patients treated with radical radiotherapy, local progression or recurrence occurred in four. The results support the use of radiotherapy alone, using doses of 45-50 Gy. Although small numbers prevent firm conclusions, the inclusion of the whole bone or regional nodes in the irradiated volume did not appear to improve results. Eight patients received systemic chemotherapy with no apparent improvement in rates of relapse. Two patients suffered pathological fractures after radiotherapy in the absence of recurrence at the fracture site; however, osteomyelitis, older age, Paget's disease, high-dose prednisolone and whole-bone radiotherapy may have added to the risk of fracture. Because of the many complex names and selection criteria applied to this condition, literature searching and comparison between studies was difficult. The simple term osteolymphoma is proposed, consistent with other primary bone conditions.