Antiviral activities of extracts and selected pure constituents of Ocimum basilicum
Article first published online: 19 SEP 2005
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology
Volume 32, Issue 10, pages 811–816, October 2005
How to Cite
Chiang, L.-C., Ng, L.-T., Cheng, P.-W., Chiang, W. and Lin, C.-C. (2005), Antiviral activities of extracts and selected pure constituents of Ocimum basilicum. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 32: 811–816. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2005.04270.x
- Issue published online: 19 SEP 2005
- Article first published online: 19 SEP 2005
- Received 13 December 2004; revision 8 April 2005; accepted 10 May 2005.
- enterovirus 71;
- hepatitis B virus;
- Ocimum basilicum
1. Ocimum basilicum (OB), also known as sweet basil, is a well known medicinal herb in traditional Chinese medicine preparations. In the present study, extracts and purified components of OB were used to identify possible antiviral activities against DNA viruses (herpes viruses (HSV), adenoviruses (ADV) and hepatitis B virus) and RNA viruses (coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1) and enterovirus 71 (EV71)).
2. The results show that crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of OB and selected purified components, namely apigenin, linalool and ursolic acid, exhibit a broad spectrum of antiviral activity. Of these compounds, ursolic acid showed the strongest activity against HSV-1 (EC50 = 6.6 mg/L; selectivity index (SI) = 15.2), ADV-8 (EC50 = 4.2 mg/L; SI = 23.8), CVB1 (EC50 = 0.4 mg/L; SI = 251.3) and EV71 (EC50 = 0.5 mg/L; SI = 201), whereas apigenin showed the highest activity against HSV-2 (EC50 = 9.7 mg/L; SI = 6.2), ADV-3 (EC50 = 11.1 mg/L; SI = 5.4), hepatitis B surface antigen (EC50 = 7.1 mg/L; SI = 2.3) and hepatitis B e antigen (EC50 = 12.8 mg/L; SI = 1.3) and linalool showed strongest activity against AVD-II (EC50 = 16.9 mg/L; SI = 10.5).
3. No activity was noted for carvone, cineole, β-caryophyllene, farnesol, fenchone, geraniol, β-myrcene and α-thujone.
4. The action of ursolic acid against CVB1 and EV71 was found to occur during the infection process and the replication phase.
5. With SI values greater than 200, the potential use of ursolic acid for treating infection with CVB1 and EV71 merits further investigation.