• 1
    Selzner N, Selzner M, Tian Y, Kadry Z, Clavien A. Cold ischemia decreases liver regeneration after partial liver transplantation in the rat: A TNF-alpha/IL-6-dependent mechanism. Hepatology 2002; 36: 81218.
  • 2
     Annual Report of the US Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. Transplant Data 1988–2003. UNOS, Richmond, VA, and the Division of Transplantation, Bureau of Health Resources and Services Administration. US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD. 2003.
  • 3
     Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation cohort study (A2ALL). Hepatology 2003; 38: 792.
  • 4
    Shiffman ML, Brown Jr RS, Olthoff KM et al. Living donor liver transplantation: Summary of a conference at the National Institutes of Health. Liver Transpl. 2002; 8: 17488.
  • 5
    Otte JB, De Ville de Goyet J, Reding R et al. Pediatric liver transplantation: From the full-size liver graft to reduced, split, and living related liver transplantation. Pediatr. Surg. Int. 1998; 13: 30818.
  • 6
    Wiesner RH, Rakela J, Ishitani MB et al. Recent advances in liver transplantation. Mayo Clin. Proc. 2003; 78: 197210.
  • 7
    Bismuth H, Houssin D. Reduced-sized orthotopic liver graft in hepatic transplantation in children. Surgery 1984; 95: 36770.
  • 8
    Busuttil RW, Goss JA. Split liver transplantation. Ann. Surg. 1999; 229: 31321.
  • 9
    De Jonge J, Kazemier G, Metselaar HJ, Tilanus HW. Partial liver transplantation. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Suppl. 2001; 234: 98102.
  • 10
    Strong RW, Lynch SV, Ong TH, Matsunami H, Koido Y, Balderson GA. Successful liver transplantation from a living donor to her son. N. Engl. J. Med. 1990; 322: 15057.
  • 11
    Trotter JF, Wachs M, Everson GT, Kam I. Adult-to-adult transplantation of the right hepatic lobe from a living donor. N. Engl. J. Med. 2002; 346: 107482.
  • 12
    Keeffe EB. Liver transplantation: Current status and novel approaches to liver replacement. Gastroenterology 2001; 120: 74962.
  • 13
    Strasberg SM, Lowell JA, Howard TK. Reducing the shortage of donor livers: What would it take to reliably split livers for transplantation into two adult recipients? Liver Transpl. Surg. 1999; 5: 43750.
  • 14
    Selzner M, Camargo CA, Clavien PA. Ischemia impairs liver regeneration after major tissue loss in rodents: Protective effects of interleukin-6. Hepatology 1999; 30: 46975.
  • 15
    Lentsch AB, Kato A, Yoshidome H, McMasters KM, Edwards MJ. Inflammatory mechanisms and therapeutic strategies for warm hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. Hepatology 2000; 32: 16973.
  • 16
    Jaeschke H. Reactive oxygen and ischemia/reperfusion injury of the liver. Chem. Biol. Interact. 1991; 79: 11536.
  • 17
    Jaeschke H, Bautista AP, Spolarics Z, Spitzer JJ. Superoxide generation by Kupffer cells and priming of neutrophils during reperfusion after hepatic ischemia. Free Radic. Res. Commun. 1991; 15: 27784.
  • 18
    Colletti LM, Remick DG, Burtch GD, Kunkel SL, Strieter RM, Campbell Jr DA. Role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the pathophysiologic alterations after hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat. J. Clin. Invest. 1990; 85: 193643.
  • 19
    Colletti LM, Kunkel SL, Walz A et al. The role of cytokine networks in the local liver injury following hepatic ischemia/reperfusion in the rat. Hepatology 1996; 23: 50614.
  • 20
    Fan C, Zwacka RM, Engelhardt JF. Therapeutic approaches for ischemia/reperfusion injury in the liver. J. Mol. Med. 1999; 77: 57792.
  • 21
    Zhou W, Zhang Y, Hosch MS, Lang AR, Zwacka M, Engelhardt JF. Subcellular site of superoxide dismutase expression differentially controls AP-1 activity and injury in mouse liver following ischemia/reperfusion. Hepatology 2001; 33: 90214.
  • 22
    Muller MJ, Vollmar B, Friedl HP, Menger MD. Xanthine oxidase and superoxide radicals in portal triad crossclamping-induced microvascular reperfusion injury of the liver. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1996; 21: 18997.
  • 23
    Yabe Y, Nishikawa M, Tamada A, Takakura Y, Hashida M. Targeted delivery and improved therapeutic potential of catalase by chemical modification: Combination with superoxide dismutase derivatives. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1999; 289: 117684.
  • 24
    Yabe Y, Kobayashi N, Nishihashi T et al. Prevention of neutrophil-mediated hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury by superoxide dismutase and catalase derivatives. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2001; 298: 8949.
  • 25
    Gao B, Flores SC, McCord JM. A site-directed mutant of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase modeled after native extracellular superoxide dismutase. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 1995; 47: 95100.
  • 26
    Gao B, Flores SC, Leff JA, Bose SK, McCord JM. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of a chimeric recombinant superoxide dismutase: SOD2/3. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 2003; 284: L91725.
  • 27
    Jaeschke H. Mechanisms of reperfusion injury after warm ischemia of the liver. J. Hepatobil. Pancreat. Surg. 1998; 5: 4028.
  • 28
    DeLeo FR, Quinn MT. Assembly of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase: Molecular interaction of oxidase proteins. J. Leukoc. Biol. 1996; 60: 67791.
  • 29
    Jaeschke H, Farhood A. Neutrophil and Kupffer cell-induced oxidant stress and ischemia–reperfusion injury in rat liver. Am. J. Physiol. 1991; 260: G35562.
  • 30
    Kono H, Rusyn I, Yin M et al. NADPH oxidase-derived free radicals are key oxidants in alcohol-induced liver disease. J. Clin. Invest. 2000; 106: 86772.
  • 31
    Gorlach A, Brandes RP, Nguyen K, Amidi M, Dehghani F, Busse R. A gp91phox containing NADPH oxidase selectively expressed in endothelial cells is a major source of oxygen radical generation in the arterial wall. Circ. Res. 2000; 87: 2632.
  • 32
    Harada H, Pavlick KP, Hines IN et al. Selected contribution: Effects of gender on reduced-size liver ischemia and reperfusion injury. J. Appl. Physiol 2001; 91: 281622.
  • 33
    Zwacka RM, Zhou W, Zhang Y et al. Redox gene therapy for ischemia/reperfusion injury of the liver reduces AP1 and NF-kappaB activation. Nat. Med. 1998; 4: 698704.
  • 34
    Hines IN, Hoffman JM, Scheerens H et al. Regulation of postischemic liver injury following different durations of ischemia. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 2003; 284: G53645.
  • 35
    Harada H, Hines IN, Flores S et al. Role of NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide in reduced size liver ischemia and reperfusion injury. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2004; 423: 1038.
  • 36
    Savier E, Lemasters JJ, Thurman RG. Kupffer cells participate in rejection following liver transplantation in the rat. Transplant. Int. 1994; 7 (Suppl. 1): S1836.
  • 37
    Jaeschke H, Bautista AP, Spolarics Z, Spitzer JJ. Superoxide generation by neutrophils and Kupffer cells during in vivo reperfusion after hepatic ischemia in rats. J. Leukoc. Biol. 1992; 52: 37782.
  • 38
    Bremer C, Bradford BU, Hunt KJ et al. Role of Kupffer cells in the pathogenesis of hepatic reperfusion injury. Am. J. Physiol. 1994; 267: G6306.
  • 39
    Mosher B, Dean R, Harkema J, Remick D, Palma J, Crockett E. Inhibition of Kupffer cells reduced CXC chemokine production and liver injury. J. Surg. Res. 2001; 99: 20110.
  • 40
    Pollock JD, Williams DA, Gifford MA et al. Mouse model of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease, an inherited defect in phagocyte superoxide production. Nat. Genet. 1995; 9: 2029.
  • 41
    Rymsa B, Wang JF, De Groot H. O2– release by activated Kupffer cells upon hypoxia–reoxygenation. Am. J. Physiol. 1991; 261: G6027.
  • 42
    Madesh M, Hajnoczky G. VDAC-dependent permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane by superoxide induces rapid and massive cytochrome c release. J. Cell Biol. 2001; 155: 100315.
  • 43
    Hausladen A, Fridovich I. Superoxide and peroxynitrite inactivate aconitases, but nitric oxide does not. J. Biol. Chem. 1994; 269: 29 405–8.
  • 44
    Sanlioglu S, Williams C, Samavati ML et al. Lipopolysaccharide induces Rac1-dependent reactive oxygen species formation and coordinates tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion through IKK regulation of NF-kappa B. J. Biol. Chem. 2001; 276: 30 18898.
  • 45
    Harada H, Pavlick KP, Hines IN et al. Sexual dimorphism in reduced-size liver ischemia and reperfusion injury in mice: Role of endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 2003; 100: 73944.
  • 46
    Hines IN, Harada H, Flores S, Gao B, McCord JM, Grisham MB. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase protects the post-ischemic liver: Potential interactions with superoxide. Biomed. Pharmacother. 2005; 59: 1839.
  • 47
    Kiuchi T, Kasahara M, Uryuhara K et al. Impact of graft size mismatching on graft prognosis in liver transplantation from living donors. Transplantation 1999; 67: 3217.
  • 48
    Sugawara Y, Makuuchi M. Small-for-size graft problems in adult-to-adult living-donor liver transplantation. Transplantation 2003; 75: S202.
  • 49
    Man K, Fan ST, Lo CM et al. Graft injury in relation to graft size in right lobe live donor liver transplantation: A study of hepatic sinusoidal injury in correlation with portal hemodynamics and intragraft gene expression. Ann. Surg. 2003; 237: 25664.
  • 50
    Liang TB, Man K, Lee Kin-Wah T et al. Distinct intragraft response pattern in relation to graft size in liver transplantation. Transplantation 2003; 75: 6738.
  • 51
    Shiraishi M, Csete ME, Yasunaga C et al. Regeneration-induced accelerated rejection in reduced-size liver grafts. Transplantation 1994; 57: 33640.
  • 52
    Omura T, Nakagawa T, Randall HB et al. Increased immune responses to regenerating partial liver grafts in the rat. J. Surg. Res. 1997; 70: 3440.
  • 53
    Yang ZF, Ho DW, Chu AC, Wang YQ, Fan ST. Linking inflammation to acute rejection in small-for-size liver allografts: The potential role of early macrophage activation. Am. J. Transplant. 2004; 4: 196209.
  • 54
    Urakami H, Grisham MB. . Divergent roles of superoxide and nitritc oxide in reduced size liver ischemia and reperfusion injury: Implications for partial liver transplantation. Pathophysiology 2006; 13: 1839.
  • 55
    Jaeschke H. Preservation injury: Mechanisms, prevention and consequences. J. Hepatol. 1996; 25: 77480.
  • 56
    Huet PM, Nagaoka MR, Desbiens G et al. Sinusoidal endothelial cell and hepatocyte death following cold ischemia–warm reperfusion of the rat liver. Hepatology 2004; 39: 111019.
  • 57
    Totsuka E, Fung JJ, Hakamada K et al. Synergistic effect of cold and warm ischemia time on postoperative graft function and outcome in human liver transplantation. Transplant. Proc. 2004; 36: 19558.
  • 58
    Que X, Debonera F, Xie J et al. Pattern of ischemia reperfusion injury in a mouse orthotopic liver transplant model. J. Surg. Res. 2004; 116: 2628.
  • 59
    Clavien PA, Morgan GR, Sanabria JR et al. Effect of cold preservation on lymphocyte adherence in the perfused rat liver. Transplantation 1991; 52: 41217.
  • 60
    Farhood A, McGuire GM, Manning AM, Miyasaka M, Smith CW, Jaeschke H. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression and its role in neutrophil-induced ischemia–reperfusion injury in rat liver. J. Leukoc. Biol. 1995; 57: 36874.
  • 61
    Urata K, Nguyen B, Brault A, Lavoie J, Rocheleau B, Huet PM. Decreased survival in rat liver transplantation with extended cold preservation: Role of portal vein clamping time. Hepatology 1998; 28: 36673.
  • 62
    Serafin A, Rosello-Catafau J, Prats N, Xaus C, Gelpi E, Peralta C. Ischemic preconditioning increases the tolerance of fatty liver to hepatic ischemia–reperfusion injury in the rat. Am. J. Pathol. 2002; 161: 587601.
  • 63
    Dulkanchainun TS, Goss JA, Imagawa DK et al. Reduction of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury by a soluble P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1. Ann. Surg. 1998; 227: 83240.
  • 64
    Gujral JS, Bucci TJ, Farhood A, Jaeschke H. Mechanism of cell death during warm hepatic ischemia–reperfusion in rats: Apoptosis or necrosis? Hepatology 2001; 33: 397405.
  • 65
    Kohli V, Selzner M, Madden JF, Bentley RC, Clavien PA. Endothelial cell and hepatocyte deaths occur by apoptosis after ischemia–reperfusion injury in the rat liver. Transplantation 1999; 67: 1099105.
  • 66
    Zhong Z, Froh M, Connor HD et al. Prevention of hepatic ischemia–reperfusion injury by green tea extract. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 2002; 283: G95764.
  • 67
    Jaeschke H. Molecular mechanisms of hepatic ischemia–reperfusion injury and preconditioning. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 2003; 284: G1526.
  • 68
    Teoh NC, Farrell GC. Hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury: Pathogenic mechanisms and basis for hepatoprotection. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2003; 18: 891902.
  • 69
    Yadav SS, Howell DN, Gao W, Steeber DA, Harland RC, Clavien PA. L-Selectin and ICAM-1 mediate reperfusion injury and neutrophil adhesion in the warm ischemic mouse liver. Am. J. Physiol. 1998; 275: G134152.
  • 70
    Man K, Lo CM, Lee TK, Li XL, Ng IO, Fan ST. Intragraft gene expression profiles by cDNA microarray in small-for-size liver grafts. Liver Transplant. 2003; 9: 42532.
  • 71
    Cressman DE, Greenbaum LE, DeAngelis RA et al. Liver failure and defective hepatocyte regeneration in interleukin-6-deficient mice. Science 1996; 274: 137983.
  • 72
    Yang ZF, Tsui TY, Ho DW, Tang TC, Fan ST. Heme oxygenase-1 potentiates the survival of small-for-size liver graft. Liver Transplant. 2004; 10: 78493.
  • 73
    Muller C, Dunschede F, Koch E, Vollmar AM, Kiemer AK. Alpha-lipoic acid preconditioning reduces ischemia–reperfusion injury of the rat liver via the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 2003; 285: G76978.
  • 74
    Suh JH, Shenvi SV, Dixon BM et al. Decline in transcriptional activity of Nrf2 causes age-related loss of glutathione synthesis, which is reversible with lipoic acid. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 2004; 101: 33816.
  • 75
    Totsuka E, Fung JJ, Lee MC et al. Influence of cold ischemia time and graft transport distance on postoperative outcome in human liver transplantation. Surg. Today 2002; 32: 7929.
  • 76
    Vivarelli M, Cucchetti A, La Barba G et al. Ischemic arterial complications after liver transplantation in the adult: Multivariate analysis of risk factors. Arch. Surg. 2004; 139: 106974.
  • 77
    Jassem W, Koo DD, Cerundolo L, Rela M, Heaton ND, Fuggle SV. Cadaveric versus living-donor livers: Differences in inflammatory markers after transplantation. Transplantation 2003; 76: 1599603.