• axolotl;
  • regeneration;
  • tail;
  • Xenopus

The tail of the Xenopus tadpole contains major axial structures, including a spinal cord, notochord and myotomes, and regenerates within 2 weeks following amputation. The tail regeneration in Xenopus can provide insights into the molecular basis of the regeneration mechanism. The regenerated tail has some differences from the normal tail, including an immature spinal cord and incomplete segmentation of the muscle masses. Lineage analyses have suggested that the tail tissues are reconstructed with lineage-restricted stem cells derived from their own tissues in clear contrast to urodele regeneration, in which multipotent blastema cells derived from differentiated cells play a major role. Comprehensive gene expression analyses resulted in the identification of a panel of genes involved in sequential steps of the regeneration. Manipulation of genes’ activities suggested that the tail regeneration is regulated through several major signaling pathways.