Embryonic and adult stem cell systems in mammals: Ontology and regulation

Authors

  • Keiichi Katsumoto,

    1. Department of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics (IMEG), Kumamoto University, Honjo 2-2-1, Kumamoto 860-0811
    2. The Global COE Cell Fate Regulation Research and Education Unit, Kumamoto University, Honjo 2-2-1, Kumamoto 860-0811, Japan
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  • Nobuaki Shiraki,

    1. Department of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics (IMEG), Kumamoto University, Honjo 2-2-1, Kumamoto 860-0811
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  • Rika Miki,

    1. Department of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics (IMEG), Kumamoto University, Honjo 2-2-1, Kumamoto 860-0811
    2. The Global COE Cell Fate Regulation Research and Education Unit, Kumamoto University, Honjo 2-2-1, Kumamoto 860-0811, Japan
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  • Shoen Kume

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics (IMEG), Kumamoto University, Honjo 2-2-1, Kumamoto 860-0811
    2. The Global COE Cell Fate Regulation Research and Education Unit, Kumamoto University, Honjo 2-2-1, Kumamoto 860-0811, Japan
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*Author to whom all correspondence should be addressed.
Email: skume@kumamoto-u.ac.jp

Abstract

Stem cells are defined as having the ability to self-renew and to generate differentiated cells. During embryogenesis, cells are initially proliferative and pluripotent and then they gradually become restricted to different cell fates. In the adult, tissue stem cells are normally quiescent, but become proliferative upon injury. Knowledge from developmental biology and insights into the properties of stem cells are keys to further understanding and successful manipulation. Here, we first focus on ES cells, then on embryonic development, and then on tissue stem cells of endodermally derived tissues, particularly the liver and pancreas.

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