SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aasen, T., Raya, A., Barrero, M. J., Garreta, E., Consiglio, A., Gonzalez, F., Vassena, R., Bilić, J., Pekarik, V., Tiscornia, G., Edel, M., Boué, S. & Izpisúa Belmonte, J. C. 2008. Efficient and rapid generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human keratinocytes. Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 12761284.
  • Aoi, T., Yae, K., Nakagawa, M., Ichisaka, T., Okita, K., Takahashi, K., Chiba, T. & Yamanaka, S. 2008. Generation of pluripotent stem cells from adult mouse liver and stomach cells. Science 321, 699702.
  • Avilion, A. A., Nicolis, S. K., Pevny, L. H., Perez, L., Vivian, N. & Lovell-Badge, R. 2003. Multipotent cell lineages in early mouse development depend on SOX2 function. Genes Dev. 17, 126140.
  • Banito, A., Rashid, S. T., Acosta, J. C., Li, S., Pereira, C. F., Geti, I., Pinho, S., Silva, J. C., Azuara, V., Walsh, M., Vallier, L. & Gil, J. 2009. Senescence impairs successful reprogramming to pluripotent stem cells. Genes Dev. 23, 21342139.
  • Bechard, M. & Dalton, S. 2009. Subcellular localization of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta controls embryonic stem cell self-renewal. Mol. Cell. Biol. 29, 20922104.
  • Bernstein, B. E., Mikkelsen, T. S., Xie, X., Kamal, M., Huebert, D. J., Cuff, J., Fry, B., Meissner, A., Wernig, M., Plath, K., Jaenisch, R., Wagschal, A., Feil, R., Schreiber, S. L. & Lander, E. S. 2006. A bivalent chromatin structure marks key developmental genes in embryonic stem cells. Cell 125, 315326.
  • Bernstein, B. E., Meissner, A. & Lander, E. S. 2007. The mammalian epigenome. Cell 128, 669681.
  • Bhutani, N., Brady, J. J., Damian, M., Sacco, A., Corbel, S. Y. & Blau, H. M. 2010. Reprogramming towards pluripotency requires AID-dependent DNA demethylation. Nature doi:10.1038\nature08752.
  • Boiani, M. & Schöler, H. R. 2005. Regulatory networks in embryo-derived pluripotent stem cells. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 6, 872884.
  • Boland, M. J., Hazen, J. L., Nazor, K. L., Rodriguez, A. R., Gifford, W., Martin, G., Kupriyanov, S. & Baldwin, K. K. 2009. Adult mice generated from induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature 461, 9194.
  • Boyer, L. A., Lee, T. I., Cole, M. F., Johnstone, S. E., Levine, S. S., Zucker, J. P., Guenther, M. G., Kumar, R. M., Murray, H. L., Jenner, R. G., Gifford, D. K., Melton, D. A., Jaenisch, R. & Young, R. A. 2005. Core transcriptional regulatory circuitry in human embryonic stem cells. Cell 122, 947956.
  • Boyer, L. A., Plath, K., Zeitlinger, J., Brambrink, T., Medeiros, L. A., Lee, T. I., Levine, S. S., Wernig, M., Tajonar, A., Ray, M. K., Otte, A. P., Vidal, M., Gifford, D. K., Young, R. A. & Jaenisch, R. 2006. Polycomb complexes repress developmental regulators in murine embryonic stem cells. Nature 441, 349353.
  • Brown, J. P., Wei, W. & Sedivy, J. M. 1997. Bypass of senescence after disruption of p21CIP1/WAF1 gene in normal diploid human fibroblasts. Science 277, 831834.
  • Byrne, J. A., Pedersen, D. A., Clepper, L. L., Nelson, M., Sanger, W. G., Gokhale, S., Wolf, D. P. & Mitalipov, S. M. 2007. Producing primate embryonic stem cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Nature 450, 497502.
  • Card, D. A., Hebbar, P. B., Li, L., Trotter, K. W., Komatsu, Y., Mishina, Y. & Archer, T. K. 2008. Oct4/Sox2-regulated miR-302 targets cyclin D1 in human embryonic stem cells. Mol. Cell. Biol. 28, 64266438.
  • Cartwright, P., McLean, C., Sheppard, A., Rivett, D., Jones, K. & Dalton, S. 2005. LIF/STAT3 controls ES cell self-renewal and pluripotency by a Myc-dependent mechanism. Development 132, 885896.
  • Chambers, I., Colby, D., Robertson, M., Nichols, J., Lee, S., Tweedie, S. & Smith, A. 2003. Functional expression cloning of Nanog, a pluripotency sustaining factor in embryonic stem cells. Cell 113, 643655.
  • Chan, K. K., Zhang, J., Chia, N. Y., Chan, Y. S., Sim, H. S., Tan, K. S., Oh, S. K., Ng, H. H. & Choo, A. B. 2009. KLF4 and PBX1 directly regulate NANOG expression in human embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells 27, 21142125.
  • Chung, Y., Klimanskaya, I., Becker, S., Marh, J., Lu, S. J., Johnson, J., Meisner, L. & Lanza, R. 2006. Embryonic and extraembryonic stem cell lines derived from single mouse blastomeres. Nature 439, 216219.
  • Chung, Y., Klimanskaya, I., Becker, S., Li, T., Maserati, M., Lu, S. J., Zdravkovic, T., Ilic, D., Genbacev, O., Fisher, S., Krtolica, A. & Lanza, R. 2008. Human embryonic stem cell lines generated without embryo destruction. Cell Stem Cell 2, 113117.
  • Cole, M. F., Johnstone, S. E., Newman, J. J., Kagey, M. H. & Young, R. A. 2008. Tcf3 is an integral component of the core regulatory circuitry of embryonic stem cells. Genes Dev. 22, 746755.
  • Cowan, C. A., Atienza, J., Melton, D. A. & Eggan, K. 2005. Nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells after fusion with human embryonic stem cells. Science 309, 13691373.
  • Dannenberg, J. H., Van Rossum, A., Schuijff, L. & Te Riele, H. 2000. Ablation of the retinoblastoma gene family deregulates G(1) control causing immortalization and increased cell turnover under growth-restricting conditions. Genes Dev. 14, 30513064.
  • Elling, U., Klasen, C., Eisenberger, T., Anlag, K. & Treier, M. 2006. Murine inner cell mass-derived lineages depend on Sall4 function. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 103, 1631916324.
  • Ema, M., Mori, D., Niwa, H., Hasegawa, Y., Yamanaka, Y., Hitoshi, S., Mimura, J., Kawabe, Y., Hosoya, T., Morita, M., Shimosato, D., Uchida, K., Suzuki, N., Yanagisawa, J., Sogawa, K., Rossant, J., Yamamoto, M., Takahashi, S. & Fujii-Kuriyama, Y. 2008. Krüppel-like factor 5 is essential for blastocyst development and the normal self-renewal of mouse ESCs. Cell Stem Cell 3, 555567.
  • Eminli, S., Utikal, J., Arnold, K., Jaenisch, R. & Hochedlinger, K. 2008. Reprogramming of neural progenitor cells into induced pluripotent stem cells in the absence of exogenous Sox2 expression. Stem Cells 26, 24672474.
  • Epsztejn-Litman, S., Feldman, N., Abu-Remaileh, M., Shufaro, Y., Gerson, A., Ueda, J., Deplus, R., Fuks, F., Shinkai, Y., Cedar, H. & Bergman, Y. 2008. De novo DNA methylation promoted by G9a prevents reprogramming of embryonically silenced genes. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 15, 11761183.
  • Evans, M. J. & Kaufman, M. H. 1981. Establishment in culture of pluripotential cells from mouse embryos. Nature 292, 154156.
  • Evans, P. M., Zhang, W., Chen, X., Yang, J., Bhakat, K. K. & Liu, C. 2007. Kruppel-like factor 4 is acetylated by p300 and regulates gene transcription via modulation of histone acetylation. J. Biol. Chem. 282, 3399434002.
  • Feldman, N., Gerson, A., Fang, J., Li, E., Zhang, Y., Shinkai, Y., Cedar, H. & Bergman, Y. 2006. G9a-mediated irreversible epigenetic inactivation of Oct-3/4 during early embryogenesis. Nat. Cell. Biol. 2006(8), 18894.
  • Feng, B., Jiang, J., Kraus, P., Ng, J. H., Heng, J. C., Chan, Y. S., Yaw, L. P., Zhang, W., Loh, Y. H., Han, J., Vega, V. B., Cacheux-Rataboul, V., Lim, B., Lufkin, T. & Ng, H. H. 2009. Reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells with orphan nuclear receptor Esrrb. Nat. Cell Biol. 11, 197203.
  • Ferri, A. L., Cavallaro, M., Braida, D., Di Cristofano, A., Canta, A., Vezzani, A., Ottolenghi, S., Pandolfi, P. P., Sala, M., DeBiasi, S. & Nicolis, S. K. 2004. Sox2 deficiency causes neurodegeneration and impaired neurogenesis in the adult mouse brain. Development 131, 38053819.
  • Gangaraju, V. K. & Lin, H. 2009. MicroRNAs: key regulators of stem cells. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 10, 116125.
  • Guo, G., Yang, J., Nichols, J., Hall, J. S., Eyres, I., Mansfield, W. & Smith, A. 2009. Klf4 reverts developmentally programmed restriction of ground state pluripotency. Development 136, 10631069.
  • Gurdon, J. B., Elsdale, T. R. & Fischber, M. 1958. Sexually mature individuals of Xenopus laevis from the transplantation of single somatic nuclei. Nature 182, 6465.
  • Hanna, J., Saha, K., Pando, B., Van Zon, J., Lengner, CJ., Creyghton, MP., Van Oudenaarden, A. & Jaenisch, R. 2009. Direct cell reprogramming is a stochastic process amenable to acceleration. Nature. 462, 595601.
  • Heo, I., Joo, C., Cho, J., Ha, M., Han, J. & Kim, V. N. 2008. Lin28 mediates the terminal uridylation of let-7 precursor MicroRNA. Mol. Cell 32, 276284.
  • Heo, I., Joo, C., Kim, Y. K., Ha, M., Yoon, M. J., Cho, J., Yeom, K. H., Han, J. & Kim, V. N. 2009. TUT4 in concert with Lin28 suppresses microRNA biogenesis through pre-microRNA uridylation. Cell 138, 696708.
  • Hester, M. E., Song, S., Miranda, C. J., Eagle, A., Schwartz, P. H. & Kaspar, B. K. 2009. Two factor reprogramming of human neural stem cells into pluripotency. PLoS ONE 4, e7044.
  • Hochedlinger, K. & Jaenisch, R. 2006. Nuclear reprogramming and pluripotency. Nature 441, 10611067.
  • Hong, H., Takahashi, K., Ichisaka, T., Aoi, T., Kanagawa, O., Nakagawa, M., Okita, K. & Yamanaka, S. 2009. Suppression of induced pluripotent stem cell generation by the p53-p21 pathway. Nature 460, 11321135.
  • Houbaviy, H. B., Murray, M. F. & Sharp, P. A. 2003. Embryonic stem cell-specific MicroRNAs. Dev. Cell 5, 351358.
  • Huangfu, D., Maehr, R., Guo, W., Eijkelenboom, A., Snitow, M., Chen, A. E. & Melton, D. A. 2008a. Induction of pluripotent stem cells by defined factors is greatly improved by small-molecule compounds. Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 795797.
  • Huangfu, D., Osafune, K., Maehr, R., Guo, W., Eijkelenboom, A., Chen, S., Muhlestein, W. & Melton, D. A. 2008b. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from primary human fibroblasts with only Oct4 and Sox2. Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 12691275.
  • Ichida, J. K., Blanchard, J., Lam, K., Son, E. Y., Chung, J. E., Egli, D., Loh, K. M., Carter, A. C., Di Giorgio, F. P., Koszka, K., Huangfu, D., Akutsu, H., Liu, D. R., Rubin, L. & Eggan, K. 2009. A small-molecule inhibitor of tgf-Beta signaling replaces sox2 in reprogramming by inducing nanog. Cell Stem Cell.. 5, 491503.
  • Ikegami, K., Iwatani, M., Suzuki, M., Tachibana, M., Shinkai, Y., Tanaka, S., Greally, J. M., Yagi, S., Hattori, N. & Shiota, K. 2007. Genome-wide and locus-specific DNA hypomethylation in G9a deficient mouse embryonic stem cells. Genes. Cells 12, 111.
  • Ivey, K. N., Muth, A., Arnold, J., King, F. W., Yeh, R. F., Fish, J. E., Hsiao, E. C., Schwartz, R. J., Conklin, B. R., Bernstein, H. S. & Srivastava, D. 2008. MicroRNA regulation of cell lineages in mouse and human embryonic stem cells. Cell Stem Cell 2, 219229.
  • Jackson, M., Krassowska, A., Gilbert, N., Chevassut, T., Forrester, L., Ansell, J. & Ramsahoye, B. 2004. Severe global DNA hypomethylation blocks differentiation and induces histone hyperacetylation in embryonic stem cells. Mol. Cell. Biol. 24, 88628871.
  • Jiang, J., Chan, Y. S., Loh, Y. H., Cai, J., Tong, G. Q., Lim, C. A., Robson, P., Zhong, S. & Ng, H. H. 2008. A core Klf circuitry regulates self-renewal of embryonic stem cells. Nat. Cell Biol. 10, 353360.
  • Judson, R. L., Babiarz, J. E., Venere, M. & Blelloch, R. 2009. Embryonic stem cell-specific microRNAs promote induced pluripotency. Nat. Biotechnol. 27, 459461.
  • Kaji, K., Caballero, I. M., MacLeod, R., Nichols, J., Wilson, V. A. & Hendrich, B. 2006. The NuRD component Mbd3 is required for pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. Nat. Cell Biol. 8, 285292.
  • Kanatsu-Shinohara, M., Inoue, K., Lee, J., Yoshimoto, M., Ogonuki, N., Miki, H., Baba, S., Kato, T., Kazuki, Y., Toyokuni, S., Toyoshima, M., Niwa, O., Oshimura, M., Heike, T., Nakahata, T., Ishino, F., Ogura, A. & Shinohara, T. 2004. Generation of pluripotent stem cells from neonatal mouse testis. Cell 119, 10011012.
  • Kanellopoulou, C., Muljo, S. A., Kung, A. L., Ganesan, S., Drapkin, R., Jenuwein, T., Livingston, D. M. & Rajewsky, K. 2005. Dicer-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells are defective in differentiation and centromeric silencing. Genes Dev. 19, 489501.
  • Kang, L., Wang, J., Zhang, Y., Kou, Z. & Gao, S. 2009. iPS cells can support full-term development of tetraploid blastocyst-complemented embryos. Cell Stem Cell 5, 135138.
  • Kawamura, T., Suzuki, J., Wang, Y. V., Menendez, S., Morera, L. B., Raya, A., Wahl, G. M. & Izpisúa Belmonte, J. C. 2009. Linking the p53 tumour suppressor pathway to somatic cell reprogramming. Nature 460, 11401144.
  • Kawasaki, H., Mizuseki, K., Nishikawa, S., Kaneko, S., Kuwana, Y., Nakanishi, S., Nishikawa, S. I. & Sasai, Y. 2000. Induction of midbrain dopaminergic neurons from ES cells by stromal cell-derived inducing activity. Neuron 28, 3140.
  • Kehler, J., Tolkunova, E., Koschorz, B., Pesce, M., Gentile, L., Boiani, M., Lomelí, H., Nagy, A., McLaughlin, K. J., Schöler, H. R. & Tomilin, A. 2004. Oct4 is required for primordial germ cell survival. EMBO Rep. 5, 10781083.
  • Kim, H. H., Kuwano, Y., Srikantan, S., Lee, E. K., Martindale, J. L. & Gorospe, M. 2009a. HuR recruits let-7/RISC to repress c-Myc expression. Genes Dev. 23, 17431748.
  • Kim, J. B., Zaehres, H., Wu, G., Gentile, L., Ko, K., Sebastiano, V., Araúzo-Bravo, M. J., Ruau, D., Han, D. W., Zenke, M. & Schöler, H. R. 2008. Pluripotent stem cells induced from adult neural stem cells by reprogramming with two factors. Nature 454, 646650.
  • Kim, J. B., Sebastiano, V., Wu, G., Araúzo-Bravo, M. J., Sasse, P., Gentile, L., Ko, K., Ruau, D., Ehrich, M., Van Den Boom, D., Meyer, J., Hübner, K., Bernemann, C., Ortmeier, C., Zenke, M., Fleischmann, B. K., Zaehres, H. & Schöler, H. R. 2009b. Oct4-induced pluripotency in adult neural stem cells. Cell 136, 411419.
  • Kim, J. B., Greber, B., Araúzo-Bravo, M. J., Meyer, J., Park, K. I., Zaehres, H. & Schöler, H. R. 2009c. Direct reprogramming of human neural stem cells by OCT4. Nature 461, 649653.
  • Kimura, H., Tada, M., Nakatsuji, N. & Tada, T. 2004. Histone code modifications on pluripotential nuclei of reprogrammed somatic cells. Mol. Cell. Biol. 24, 57105720.
  • Kishigami, S., Mizutani, E., Ohta, H., Hikichi, T., Van Thuan, N., Wakayama, S., Bui, H. T. & Wakayama, T. 2006. Significant improvement of mouse cloning technique by treatment with trichostatin A after somatic nuclear transfer. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 340, 183189.
  • Klimanskaya, I., Chung, Y., Becker, S., Lu, S. J. & Lanza, R. 2006. Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from single blastomeres. Nature 444, 481485.
  • Labosky, P. A., Barlow, D. P. & Hogan, B. L. 1994. Mouse embryonic germ (EG) cell lines: transmission through the germline and differences in the methylation imprint of insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (Igf2r) gene compared with embryonic stem (ES) cell lines. Development 120, 31973204.
  • LeCouter, J. E., Whyte, P. F. & Rudnicki, M. A. 1996. Cloning and expression of the Rb-related mouse p130 mRNA. Oncogene 12, 14331440.
  • Lee, T. I., Jenner, R. G., Boyer, L. A., Guenther, M. G., Chevalier, B., Levine, S. S., Kumar, R. M., Johnstone, S. E., Murray, H. L., Zucker, J. P., Yuan, B., Bell, G. W., Herbolsheimer, E., Hannett, N. M., Cole, M. F., Sun, K., Odom, D. T., Volkert, T. L., Bartel, D. P., Gifford, D. K., Melton, D. A., Jaenisch, R. & Young, R. A. 2006. Control of developmental regulators by polycomb in human embryonic stem cells. Cell 125, 301313.
  • Li, E. 2002. Chromatin modification and epigenetic reprogramming in mammalian development. Nat. Rev. Genet. 3, 662673.
  • Li, W., Zhou, H., Abujarour, R., Zhu, S., Joo, J. Y., Lin, T., Hao, E., Schöler, H. R., Hayek, A. & Ding, S. 2009a. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells in the absence of exogenous Sox2. Stem Cells 27, 29923000.
  • Li, Y., McClintick, J., Zhong, L., Edenberg, H. J., Yoder, M. C. & Chan, R. J. 2005. Murine embryonic stem cell differentiation is promoted by SOCS-3 and inhibited by the zinc finger transcription factor Klf4. Blood 105, 635637.
  • Li, H., Collado, M., Villasante, A., Strati, K., Ortega, S., Cañamero, M., Blasco, M. A. & Serrano, M. 2009b. The Ink4/Arf locus is a barrier for iPS cell reprogramming. Nature 460, 11361139.
  • Liao, J., Wu, Z., Wang, Y., Cheng, L., Cui, C., Gao, Y., Chen, T., Rao, L., Chen, S., Jia, N., Dai, H., Xin, S., Kang, J., Pei, G. & Xiao, L. 2008. Enhanced efficiency of generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from human somatic cells by a combination of six transcription factors. Cell Res. 18, 600603.
  • Lin, C. H., Lin, C., Tanaka, H., Fero, M. L. & Eisenman, R. N. 2009a. Gene regulation and epigenetic remodeling in murine embryonic stem cells by c-Myc. PLoS ONE 4, e7839.
  • Lin, T., Chao, C., Saito, S., Mazur, S. J., Murphy, M. E., Appella, E. & Xu, Y. 2005. p53 induces differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells by suppressing Nanog expression. Nat. Cell Biol. 7, 165171.
  • Lin, T., Ambasudhan, R., Yuan, X., Li, W., Hilcove, S., Abujarour, R., Lin, X., Hahm, H. S., Hao, E., Hayek, A. & Ding, S. 2009b. A chemical platform for improved induction of human iPSCs. Nat. Methods 6, 805808.
  • Lukas, J., Parry, D., Aagaard, L., Mann, D. J., Bartkova, J., Strauss, M., Peters, G. & Bartek, J. 1995. Retinoblastoma-protein-dependent cell-cycle inhibition by the tumour suppressor p16. Nature 375, 503506.
  • Lyssiotis, C. A., Foreman, R. K., Staerk, J., Garcia, M., Mathur, D., Markoulaki, S., Hanna, J., Lairson, L. L., Charette, B. D., Bouchez, L. C., Bollong, M., Kunick, C., Brinker, A., Cho, C. Y., Schultz, P. G. & Jaenisch, R. 2009. Reprogramming of murine fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells with chemical complementation of Klf4. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 106, 89128917.
  • Ma, D. K., Chiang, C. H., Ponnusamy, K., Ming, G. L. & Song, H. 2008. G9a and Jhdm2a regulate embryonic stem cell fusion-induced reprogramming of adult neural stem cells. Stem Cells 26, 21312141.
  • Maherali, N., Sridharan, R., Xie, W., Utikal, J., Eminli, S., Arnold, K., Stadtfeld, M., Yachechko, R., Tchieu, J., Jaenisch, R., Plath, K. & Hochedlinger, K. 2007. Directly reprogrammed fibroblasts show global epigenetic remodeling and widespread tissue contribution. Cell Stem Cell 1, 5570.
  • Maherali, N. & Hochedlinger, K. 2009. Tgfbeta signal inhibition cooperates in the induction of iPSCs and replaces Sox2 and cMyc. Curr. Biol. 19, 17181723.
  • Mali, P., Ye, Z., Hommond, H. H., Yu, X., Lin, J., Chen, G., Zou, J. & Cheng, L. 2008. Improved efficiency and pace of generating induced pluripotent stem cells from human adult and fetal fibroblasts. Stem Cells 26, 19982005.
  • Marión, R. M., Strati, K., Li, H., Murga, M., Blanco, R., Ortega, S., Fernandez-Capetillo, O., Serrano, M. & Blasco, M. A. 2009. A p53-mediated DNA damage response limits reprogramming to ensure iPS cell genomic integrity. Nature 460, 11491153.
  • Martin, G. R. 1981. Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 78, 76347638.
  • Masui, S., Nakatake, Y., Toyooka, Y., Shimosato, D., Yagi, R., Takahashi, K., Okochi, H., Okuda, A., Matoba, R., Sharov, A. A., Ko, M. S. & Niwa, H. 2007. Pluripotency governed by Sox2 via regulation of Oct3/4 expression in mouse embryonic stem cells. Nat. Cell Biol. 9, 625635.
  • Marson, A., Foreman, R., Chevalier, B., Bilodeau, S., Kahn, M., Young, R. A. & Jaenisch, R. 2008. Wnt signaling promotes reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency. Cell Stem Cell 3, 132135.
  • Maruyama, M., Ichisaka, T., Nakagawa, M. & Yamanaka, S. 2005. Differential roles for Sox15 and Sox2 in transcriptional control in mouse embryonic stem cells. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 2437124379.
  • Matsuda, T., Nakamura, T., Nakao, K., Arai, T., Katsuki, M., Heike, T. & Yokota, T. 1999. STAT3 activation is sufficient to maintain an undifferentiated state of mouse embryonic stem cells. EMBO J. 18, 42614269.
  • Matsui, Y., Zsebo, K. & Hogan, B. L. 1992. Derivation of pluripotential embryonic stem cells from murine primordial germ cells in culture. Cell 70, 841847.
  • McLaren, A. 2007. A scientist’s view of the ethics of human embryonic stem cell research. Cell Stem Cell 1, 2326.
  • Medema, R. H., Herrera, R. E., Lam, F. & Weinberg, R. A. 1995. Growth suppression by p16ink4 requires functional retinoblastoma protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 92, 62896293.
  • Mikkelsen, T. S., Hanna, J., Zhang, X., Ku, M., Wernig, M., Schorderet, P., Bernstein, B. E., Jaenisch, R., Lander, E. S. & Meissner, A. 2008. Dissecting direct reprogramming through integrative genomic analysis. Nature 454, 4955.
  • Mitsui, K., Tokuzawa, Y., Itoh, H., Segawa, K., Murakami, M., Takahashi, K., Maruyama, M., Maeda, M. & Yamanaka, S. 2003. The homeoprotein Nanog is required for maintenance of pluripotency in mouse epiblast and ES cells. Cell 113, 631642.
  • Montalto, M. C., Phillips, J. S. & Ray, F. A. 1999. Telomerase activation in human fibroblasts during escape from crisis. J. Cell. Physiol. 180, 4652.
  • Morgan, H. D., Dean, W., Coker, H. A., Reik, W. & Petersen-Mahrt, S. K. 2004. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase deaminates 5-Methylcytocine in DNA and is expressed in pluripotent tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 5235352360.
  • Murchison, E. P., Partridge, J. F., Tam, O. H., Cheloufi, S. & Hannon, G. J. 2005. Characterization of Dicer-deficient murine embryonic stem cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 102, 1213512140.
  • Nakagawa, M., Koyanagi, M., Tanabe, K., Takahashi, K., Ichisaka, T., Aoi, T., Okita, K., Mochiduki, Y., Takizawa, N. & Yamanaka, S. 2008. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells without Myc from mouse and human fibroblasts. Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 101106.
  • Nakajima, F., Tokunaga, K. & Nakatsuji, N. 2007. Human leukocyte antigen matching estimations in a hypothetical bank of human embryonic stem cell lines in the Japanese population for use in cell transplantation therapy. Stem Cells 25, 983985.
  • Nakano, T., Kodama, H. & Honjo, T. 1996. In vitro development of primitive and definitive erythrocytes from different precursors. Science 272, 722724.
  • Nakatake, Y., Fukui, N., Iwamatsu, Y., Masui, S., Takahashi, K., Yagi, R., Yagi, K., Miyazaki, J., Matoba, R., Ko, M. S. & Niwa, H. 2006. Klf4 cooperates with Oct3/4 and Sox2 to activate the Lefty1 core promoter in embryonic stem cells. Mol. Cell. Biol. 26, 77727782.
  • Nichols, J., Zevnik, B., Anastassiadis, K., Niwa, H., Klewe-Nebenius, D., Chambers, I., Schöler, H. & Smith, A. 1998. Formation of pluripotent stem cells in the mammalian embryo depends on the POU transcription factor Oct4. Cell 95, 379391.
  • Niwa, H., Burdon, T., Chambers, I. & Smith, A. 1998. Self-renewal of pluripotent embryonic stem cells is mediated via activation of STAT3. Genes Dev. 12, 20482060.
  • Niwa, H., Miyazaki, J. & Smith, A. G. 2000. Quantitative expression of Oct-3/4 defines differentiation, dedifferentiation or self-renewal of ES cells. Nat. Genet. 24, 372376.
  • Niwa, H., Ogawa, K., Shimosato, D. & Adachi, K. 2009. A parallel circuit of LIF signalling pathways maintains pluripotency of mouse ES cells. Nature 460, 118122.
  • Okita, K., Ichisaka, T. & Yamanaka, S. 2007. Generation of germline-competent induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature 448, 313317.
  • Papapetrou, E. P., Tomishima, M. J., Chambers, S. M., Mica, Y., Reed, E., Menon, J., Tabar, V., Mo, Q., Studer, L. & Sadelain, M. 2009. Stoichiometric and temporal requirements of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc expression for efficient human iPSC induction and differentiation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 106, 1275912764.
  • Park, I. H., Zhao, R., West, J. A., Yabuuchi, A., Huo, H., Ince, T. A., Lerou, P. H., Lensch, M. W. & Daley, G. Q. 2008. Reprogramming of human somatic cells to pluripotency with defined factors. Nature 451, 141146.
  • Pereira, L., Yi, F. & Merrill, B. J. 2006. Repression of Nanog gene transcription by Tcf3 limits embryonic stem cell self-renewal. Mol. Cell. Biol. 26, 74797491.
  • Qin, H., Yu, T., Qing, T., Liu, Y., Zhao, Y., Cai, J., Li, J., Song, Z., Qu, X., Zhou, P., Wu, J., Ding, M. & Deng, H. 2007. Regulation of apoptosis and differentiation by p53 in human embryonic stem cells. J. Biol. Chem. 282, 58425852.
  • Rideout III, W. M., Wakayama, T., Wutz, A., Eggan, K., Jackson-Grusby, L., Dausman, J., Yanagimachi, R. & Jaenisch, R. 2000. Generation of mice from wild-type and targeted ES cells by nuclear cloning. Nat. Genet. 24, 109110.
  • Rideout III, W. M., Hochedlinger, K., Kyba, M., Daley, G. Q. & Jaenisch, R. 2002. Correction of a genetic defect by nuclear transplantation and combined cell and gene therapy. Cell 109, 1727.
  • Robanus-Maandag, E., Dekker, M., Van Der Valk, M., Carrozza, M. L., Jeanny, J. C., Dannenberg, J. H., Berns, A. & Te Riele, H. 1998. p107 is a suppressor of retinoblastoma development in pRb-deficient mice. Genes Dev. 12, 15991609.
  • Rowland, B. D., Bernards, R. & Peeper, D. S. 2005. The KLF4 tumour suppressor is a transcriptional repressor of p53 that acts as a context-dependent oncogene. Nat. Cell Biol. 7, 10741082.
  • Rybouchkin, A., Kato, Y. & Tsunoda, Y. 2006. Role of histone acetylation in reprogramming of somatic nuclei following nuclear transfer. Biol. Reprod. 74, 10831089.
  • Sabapathy, K., Klemm, M., Jaenisch, R. & Wagner, E. F. 1997. Regulation of ES cell differentiation by functional and conformational modulation of p53. EMBO J. 16, 62176229.
  • Sage, J., Mulligan, G. J., Attardi, L. D., Miller, A., Chen, S., Williams, B., Theodorou, E. & Jacks, T. 2000. Targeted disruption of the three Rb-related genes leads to loss of G(1) control and immortalization. Genes Dev. 14, 30373050.
  • Sakaki-Yumoto, M., Kobayashi, C., Sato, A., Fujimura, S., Matsumoto, Y., Takasato, M., Kodama, T., Aburatani, H., Asashima, M., Yoshida, N. & Nishinakamura, R. 2006. The murine homolog of SALL4, a causative gene in Okihiro syndrome, is essential for embryonic stem cell proliferation, and cooperates with Sall1 in anorectal, heart, brain and kidney development. Development 133, 30053013.
  • Sato, N., Meijer, L., Skaltsounis, L., Greengard, P. & Brivanlou, A. H. 2004. Maintenance of pluripotency in human and mouse embryonic stem cells through activation of Wnt signaling by a pharmacological GSK-3-specific inhibitor. Nat. Med. 10, 5563.
  • Savatier, P., Lapillonne, H., Van Grunsven, L. A., Rudkin, B. B. & Samarut, J. 1996. Withdrawal of differentiation inhibitory activity/leukemia inhibitory factor up-regulates D-type cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in mouse embryonic stem cells. Oncogene 12, 309322.
  • Shi, Y., Do, J. T., Desponts, C., Hahm, H. S., Schöler, H. R. & Ding, S. 2008a. A combined chemical and genetic approach for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells. Cell Stem Cell 2, 525528.
  • Shi, Y., Desponts, C., Do, J. T., Hahm, H. S., Schöler, H. R. & Ding, S. 2008b. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic fibroblasts by Oct4 and Klf4 with small-molecule compounds. Cell Stem Cell 3, 568574.
  • Singh, A. M. & Dalton, S. 2009. The cell cycle and Myc intersect with mechanisms that regulate pluripotency and reprogramming. Cell Stem Cell 5, 141149.
  • Smith, A. G., Heath, J. K., Donaldson, D. D., Wong, G. G., Moreau, J., Stahl, M. & Rogers, D. 1988. Inhibition of pluripotential embryonic stem cell differentiation by purified polypeptides. Nature 336, 688690.
  • Silva, J., Chambers, I., Pollard, S. & Smith, A. 2006. Nanog promotes transfer of pluripotency after cell fusion. Nature 441, 9971001.
  • Silva, J., Barrandon, O., Nichols, J., Kawaguchi, J., Theunissen, T. W. & Smith, A. 2008. Promotion of reprogramming to ground state pluripotency by signal inhibition. PLoS Biol. 6, e253.
  • Smith, A. G. 2001. Embryo-derived stem cells: of mice and men. Annu. Rev. Cell. Dev. Biol. 17, 435462.
  • Sridharan, R., Tchieu, J., Mason, M. J., Yachechko, R., Kuoy, E., Horvath, S., Zhou, Q. & Plath, K. 2009. Role of the murine reprogramming factors in the induction of pluripotency. Cell 136, 364377.
  • Stewart, S. A. & Weinberg, R. A. 2006. Telomeres: cancer to human aging. Annu. Rev. Cell. Dev. Biol. 22, 531557.
  • Su, H., Trombly, M. I., Chen, J. & Wang, X. 2009. Essential and overlapping functions for mammalian Argonautes in microRNA silencing. Genes Dev. 23, 304317.
  • Suh, M. R., Lee, Y., Kim, J. Y., Kim, S. K., Moon, S. H., Lee, J. Y., Cha, K. Y., Chung, H. M., Yoon, H. S., Moon, S. Y., Kim, V. N. & Kim, K. S. 2004. Human embryonic stem cells express a unique set of microRNAs. Dev. Biol. 270, 488498.
  • Sumi, T., Fujimoto, Y., Nakatsuji, N. & Suemori, H. 2004. STAT3 is dispensable for maintenance of self-renewal in nonhuman primate embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells 22, 861872.
  • Sumi, T., Tsuneyoshi, N., Nakatsuji, N. & Suemori, H. 2007. Apoptosis and differentiation of human embryonic stem cells induced by sustained activation of c-Myc. Oncogene 26, 55645576.
  • Tachibana, M., Sugimoto, K., Nozaki, M., Ueda, J., Ohta, T., Ohki, M., Fukuda, M., Takeda, N., Niida, H., Kato, H. & Shinkai, Y. 2002. G9a histone methyltransferase plays a dominant role in euchromatic histone H3 lysine 9 methylation and is essential for early embryogenesis. Genes Dev. 16, 17791791.
  • Tada, M., Takahama, Y., Abe, K., Nakatsuji, N. & Tada, T. 2001. Nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells by in vitro hybridization with ES cells. Curr. Biol. 11, 15531558.
  • Takagi, N., Yoshida, M. A., Sugawara, O. & Sasaki, M. 1983. Reversal of X-inactivation in female mouse somatic cells hybridized with murine teratocarcinoma stem cells in vitro. Cell 34, 10531062.
  • Takahashi, K. & Yamanaka, S. 2006. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors. Cell 126, 663676.
  • Takahashi, K., Tanabe, K., Ohnuki, M., Narita, M., Ichisaka, T., Tomoda, K. & Yamanaka, S. 2007. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors. Cell 131, 861872.
  • Tam, W. L., Lim, C. Y., Han, J., Zhang, J., Ang, Y. S., Ng, H. H., Yang, H. & Lim, B. 2008. T-cell factor 3 regulates embryonic stem cell pluripotency and self-renewal by the transcriptional control of multiple lineage pathways. Stem Cells 26, 20192031.
  • Taranova, O. V., Magness, S. T., Fagan, B. M., Wu, Y., Surzenko, N., Hutton, S. R. & Pevny, L. H. 2006. SOX2 is a dose-dependent regulator of retinal neural progenitor competence. Genes Dev. 20, 11871202.
  • Tay, Y., Zhang, J., Thomson, A. M., Lim, B. & Rigoutsos, I. 2008. MicroRNAs to Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2 coding regions modulate embryonic stem cell differentiation. Nature 455, 11241128.
  • Thomson, J. A., Itskovitz-Eldor, J., Shapiro, S. S., Waknitz, M. A., Swiergiel, J. J., Marshall, V. S. & Jones, J. M. 1998. Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts. Science 282, 11451147.
  • Tsubooka, N., Ichisaka, T., Okita, K., Takahashi, K., Nakagawa, M. & Yamanaka, S. 2009. Roles of Sall4 in the generation of pluripotent stem cells from blastocysts and fibroblasts. Genes Cells 14, 683694.
  • Tsumura, A., Hayakawa, T., Kumaki, Y., Takebayashi, S., Sakaue, M., Matsuoka, C., Shimotohno, K., Ishikawa, F., Li, E., Ueda, H. R., Nakayama, J. & Okano, M. 2006. Maintenance of self-renewal ability of mouse embryonic stem cells in the absence of DNA methyltransferases Dnmt1, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b. Genes Cells 11, 805814.
  • Ura, H., Usuda, M., Kinoshita, K., Sun, C., Mori, K., Akagi, T., Matsuda, T., Koide, H. & Yokota, T. 2008. STAT3 and Oct-3/4 control histone modification through induction of Eed in embryonic stem cells. J. Biol. Chem. 283, 97139723.
  • Utikal, J., Maherali, N., Kulalert, W. & Hochedlinger, K. 2009a. Sox2 is dispensable for the reprogramming of melanocytes and melanoma cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. J. Cell Sci. 122, 35023510.
  • Utikal, J., Polo, J. M., Stadtfeld, M., Maherali, N., Kulalert, W., Walsh, R. M., Khalil, A., Rheinwald, J. G. & Hochedlinger, K. 2009b. Immortalization eliminates a roadblock during cellular reprogramming into iPS cells. Nature 460, 11451148.
  • Van Thuan, N., Bui, H. T., Kim, J. H., Hikichi, T., Wakayama, S., Kishigami, S., Mizutani, E. & Wakayama, T. 2009. The histone deacetylase inhibitor scriptaid enhances nascent mRNA production and rescues full-term development in cloned inbred mice. Reproduction 138, 309317.
  • Viswanathan, S. R., Daley, G. Q. & Gregory, R. I. 2008. Selective blockade of microRNA processing by Lin28. Science 320, 97100.
  • Viswanathan, S. R., Powers, J. T., Einhorn, W., Hoshida, Y., Ng, T. L., Toffanin, S., O’Sullivan, M., Lu, J., Phillips, L. A., Lockhart, V. L., Shah, S. P., Tanwar, P. S., Mermel, C. H., Beroukhim, R., Azam, M., Teixeira, J., Meyerson, M., Hughes, T. P., Llovet, J. M., Radich, J., Mullighan, C. G., Golub, T. R., Sorensen, P. H. & Daley, G. Q. 2009. Lin28 promotes transformation and is associated with advanced human malignancies. Nat. Genet. 41, 843848.
  • Wang, Y., Medvid, R., Melton, C., Jaenisch, R. & Blelloch, R. 2007. DGCR8 is essential for microRNA biogenesis and silencing of embryonic stem cell self-renewal. Nat. Genet. 39, 380385.
  • Wang, Y., Baskerville, S., Shenoy, A., Babiarz, J. E., Baehner, L. & Blelloch, R. 2008. Embryonic stem cell-specific microRNAs regulate the G1-S transition and promote rapid proliferation. Nat. Genet. 40, 14781483.
  • Wei, Z., Yang, Y., Zhang, P., Andrianakos, R., Hasegawa, K., Lyu, J., Chen, X., Bai, G., Liu, C., Pera, M. & Lu, W. 2009. Klf4 interacts directly with Oct4 and Sox2 to promote reprogramming. Stem Cells 27, 29692978.
  • Wernig, M., Meissner, A., Foreman, R., Brambrink, T., Ku, M., Hochedlinger, K., Bernstein, B. E. & Jaenisch, R. 2007. In vitro reprogramming of fibroblasts into a pluripotent ES-cell-like state. Nature 448, 318324.
  • Wernig, M., Meissner, A., Cassady, J. P. & Jaenisch, R. 2008a. c-Myc is dispensable for direct reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts. Cell Stem Cell 2, 1012.
  • Wernig, M., Lengner, C. J., Hanna, J., Lodato, M. A., Steine, E., Foreman, R., Staerk, J., Markoulaki, S. & Jaenisch, R. 2008b. A drug-inducible transgenic system for direct reprogramming of multiple somatic cell types. Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 916924.
  • Wilmut, I., Schnieke, A. E., McWhir, J., Kind, A. J. & Campbell, K. H. 1997. Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells. Nature 385, 810813.
  • Wong, C. C., Gaspar-Maia, A., Ramalho-Santos, M. & Reijo Pera, R. A. 2008. High-efficiency stem cell fusion-mediated assay reveals Sall4 as an enhancer of reprogramming. PLoS ONE 3, e1955.
  • Woltjen, K., Michael, I. P., Mohseni, P., Desai, R., Mileikovsky, M., Hämäläinen, R., Cowling, R., Wang, W., Liu, P., Gertsenstein, M., Kaji, K., Sung, H. K. & Nagy, A. 2009. piggyBac transposition reprograms fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature 458, 766770.
  • Wu, Q., Chen, X., Zhang, J., Loh, Y. H., Low, T. Y., Zhang, W., Zhang, W., Sze, S. K., Lim, B. & Ng, H. H. 2006. Sall4 interacts with Nanog and co-occupies Nanog genomic sites in embryonic stem cells. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 2409024094.
  • Xu, N., Papagiannakopoulos, T., Pan, G., Thomson, J. A. & Kosik, K. S. 2009. MicroRNA-145 regulates OCT4, SOX2, and KLF4 and represses pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells. Cell 137, 647658.
  • Yamanaka, S. 2009. Elite and stochastic models for induced pluripotent stem cell generation. Nature 460, 4952.
  • Yamashita, J., Itoh, H., Hirashima, M., Ogawa, M., Nishikawa, S., Yurugi, T., Naito, M., Nakao, K. & Nishikawa, S. 2000. Flk1-positive cells derived from embryonic stem cells serve as vascular progenitors. Nature 408, 9296.
  • Yasuda, S. Y., Tsuneyoshi, N., Sumi, T., Hasegawa, K., Tada, T., Nakatsuji, N. & Suemori, H. 2006. NANOG maintains self-renewal of primate ES cells in the absence of a feeder layer. Genes. Cells 11, 11151123.
  • Yi, F., Pereira, L. & Merrill, B. J. 2008. Tcf3 functions as a steady-state limiter of transcriptional programs of mouse embryonic stem cell self-renewal. Stem Cells 26, 19511960.
  • Ying, Q. L., Wray, J., Nichols, J., Batlle-Morera, L., Doble, B., Woodgett, J., Cohen, P. & Smith, A. 2008. The ground state of embryonic stem cell self-renewal. Nature 453, 519523.
  • Yoshida, Y., Takahashi, K., Okita, K., Ichisaka, T. & Yamanaka, S. 2009. Hypoxia enhances the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells. Cell Stem Cell 5, 237241.
  • Yu, J., Vodyanik, M. A., Smuga-Otto, K., Antosiewicz-Bourget, J., Frane, J. L., Tian, S., Nie, J., Jonsdottir, G. A., Ruotti, V., Stewart, R., Slukvin, I. I. & Thomson, J. A. 2007. Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from human somatic cells. Science 318, 19171920.
  • Yu, J., Hu, K., Smuga-Otto, K., Tian, S., Stewart, R., Slukvin, I. I. & Thomson, J. A. 2009. Human induced pluripotent stem cells free of vector and transgene sequences. Science 324, 797801.
  • Zhang, J., Tam, W. L., Tong, G. Q., Wu, Q., Chan, H. Y., Soh, B. S., Lou, Y., Yang, J., Ma, Y., Chai, L., Ng, H. H., Lufkin, T., Robson, P. & Lim, B. 2006. Sall4 modulates embryonic stem cell pluripotency and early embryonic development by the transcriptional regulation of Pou5f1. Nat. Cell Biol. 8, 11141123.
  • Zhang, X., Zhang, J., Wang, T., Esteban, M. A. & Pei, D. 2008. Esrrb activates Oct4 transcription and sustains self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells. J. Biol. Chem. 283, 3582535833.
  • Zhao, X. Y., Li, W., Lv, Z., Liu, L., Tong, M., Hai, T., Hao, J., Guo, C. L., Ma, Q. W., Wang, L., Zeng, F. & Zhou, Q. 2009. iPS cells produce viable mice through tetraploid complementation. Nature 461, 8690.
  • Zhao, Y., Samal, E. & Srivastava, D. 2005. Serum response factor regulates a muscle-specific microRNA that targets Hand2 during cardiogenesis. Nature 436, 214220.
  • Zhou, Q., Chipperfield, H., Melton, D. A. & Wong, W. H. 2007. A gene regulatory network in mouse embryonic stem cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 104, 1643816443.