Left column: Upper: ESC-derived Purkinje cells with highly arborized dendrites (red and yellow) and ESC-derived other GABAergic interneurons (green) in long-term culture. See Muguruma and Sasai, pp 349-357. Center: The CNS of the larvalascidian Ciona intestinalis visualized with Kaede green (top) and Kaede red (bottom) fl uorescence. The middle schematicaly illustrates the cell lineage of the CNS. See Sasakura et al., pp 420-437. Bottom: A cortical excitatory neuron extending an axon-like long process in the intermediate zone (magenta). Accumulation of Kif5C560-EGFP in the tip of this process suggests axonal nature of this process. See Hatanaka et al., pp 398-407. Right column: Upper: Most RAX (white) and OTX2 (green) double-expressing cells express only low levels of HES1 (red). In the last retinal progenitor cell cycle, the NOTCH-HES signal pathway becomes inactive, and RAX becomes active to activate Otx2 transcription. See Muranishi et al., pp 341-348. Second: Scanning electron micrograph of a Xenopus laevis embryo in neural tube closure. See Suzuki et al., pp 266-276. Third: Aberrant Venus::UNC-6 localization in muscle cells in unc-18 (e234) mutant C. elegans UNC-6 secretion may require an unknown UNC-18-mediated signal from neurons. See Ogura et al., pp 390-397.
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