Cross-cultural research: Challenge and competence


Mary Jo Clark, Hahn School of Nursing and Health Science, University of San Diego, 5998 Alcala Park, San Diego, CA 92110, USA. Email:


Increasing globalization, population diversity and health disparities among non-dominant cultures necessitate cross-cultural research. Research with other cultures is fraught with challenges that must be addressed by the competent cross-cultural researcher. Areas for consideration include choice of research foci, ethical concerns, cultural adaptation of research measurements and interventions, participant recruitment and retention, strategies for data collection and analysis, dissemination of findings and perspectives of time. Approaches to dealing with these challenges are addressed, with an emphasis on community-based participatory research.