Abstract The geology and geochemistry of pyroclastic flows and fallout tephras formed during the Karasugasen dome eruption in the Daisen–Hiruzen Volcano Group in southwest Japan have been examined in detail. The Karasugasen lava dome erupted at about 26 ka. The eruption began with a vulcanian ash fall, and this was followed by at least eight block and ash flows and a pumice flow. The block and ash flows were produced by the successive collapses of a growing lava dome. This main eruption phase was followed by an eruption of vulcanian ash falls, and finally ended with a sub-Plinian pumice fall. This eruption sequence is typical of the Daisen Volcano during the last three eruption events, which occurred at 58, 26 and 17 ka. The magma produced during the Karasugasen eruption was a typical adakite, with extremely high Sr/Y ratios and low HREE/LREE ratios compared to normal arc lavas. The chemistry of the Karasugasen lavas is almost identical to other Daisen–Hiruzen lavas that were produced from eruptions over an interval of a million years. The continuous supply of a huge amount of adakitic magma (>100 km3) for such a long period suggests a massive homogeneous source material, such as molten Philippine Sea Plate slab. Slab melting is a plausible mechanism for the production of the adakitic lavas at Karasugasen, and hence the Daisen–Hiruzen Volcano Group.