Late Pleistocene pollen assemblages from the Thimi Formation, Kathmandu Valley, Nepal
Article first published online: 21 DEC 2005
Volume 14, Issue 4, pages 328–337, December 2005
How to Cite
Paudayal, K. N. (2005), Late Pleistocene pollen assemblages from the Thimi Formation, Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Island Arc, 14: 328–337. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1738.2005.00490.x
- Issue published online: 21 DEC 2005
- Article first published online: 21 DEC 2005
- Received 11 January 2005; accepted for publication 29 August 2005.
- Kathmandu Basin;
- late Pleistocene;
- pollen record;
- Thimi Formation
Abstract The Thimi Formation, constituting the upper part of the sedimentary sequence of the Kathmandu Valley, is characterized by alternation of fine- to medium-grained sand, silt, silty clay and clay deposited by a distal fluvial system in the Late Pleistocene. Palynostratigraphy based on 40 samples revealed the dominance of gymnosperm taxa over angiosperms and herbaceous members. As the different species Pinus and Quercus grow at different altitudes in Nepal today, an attempt was made to identify these taxa up to species level for climate interpretations. Gymnosperms, such as Pinus wallichiana, Pinus roxburghii, Abies spectabilis, Tsuga dumosa and Picea smithiana, were dominant over the woody angiosperms, such as Quercus lanata, Quercus lamellosa, Quercus leucotrichophora, Quercus semecarpifolia, Betula, Juglans, Myrica, Castanopsis and Symplocos. The pollen diagram of the Thimi Formation shows only minor fluctuations in assemblage. The pollen assemblages indicate the prevalence of a cool and temperate climate during the late Pleistocene. This is confirmed by the high percentages of Poaceae and other herbaceous plants, with very few woody angiosperms.