Abstract The Xialu chert radiolarian fauna is latest Jurassic–earliest Cretaceous in age (Pseudodictyomitra carpatica zone) and contains many taxa in common with coeval northern hemisphere middle-latitude (temperate) radiolarian faunas represented by the Torinosu fauna in southwest Japan. Common elements include Eucyrtidiellum pyramis (Aita), Protunuma japonicus Matsuoka & Yao, Sethocapsa pseudouterculus Aita, Sethocapsa (?) subcrassitestata Aita, Archaeodictyomitra minoensis (Mizutani), Stichocapsa praepulchella Hori and Xitus gifuensis (Mizutani). The Xialu fauna is less similar to low-latitude (tropical) assemblages represented by the Mariana fauna. For this reason, the Xialu fauna is regarded as representative of a southern hemisphere middle-latitude (temperate) fauna. A mirror-image bi-temperate provincialism to the equator in radiolarian faunas is reconstructed for the Ceno-Tethys and Pacific Ocean in latest Jurassic–earliest Cretaceous time.