The Kontum Massif in central Vietnam is composed of various metamorphic complexes including a high-temperature southern part (Kannak and Ngoc Linh complexes) and a low- to medium-temperature northern part (Kham Duc complex). The Kham Duc complex exhibits Barrovian-type medium-pressure metamorphism evidenced by kyanite- and/or staurolite-bearing metapelites. The garnet–gedrite–kyanite gneiss, which is the focus of the present study, preserves several mineral parageneses formed during a prograde and retrograde metamorphic history: staurolite + quartz in gedrite, garnet + gedrite + kyanite in the matrix, and spinel + cordierite symplectite between gedrite and sillimanite. The calculated semiquantitative petrogenetic grid reveals peak pressure conditions of 620–650°C at 1.1–1.2 GPa and peak temperature conditions of 730–750°C at 0.7–0.8 GPa. The monazite U–Th–Pb electron microprobe ages of the garnet–gedrite–kyanite gneiss and associated gneisses yield 246 ± 3 Ma for the Kham Duc complex, which is similar to the age of the high- to ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in the adjacent Kannak and Ngoc Linh complexes of the southern Kontum Massif. The present results indicate that both the Barrovian-type and ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism occurred simultaneously in the Kontum Massif during an event strongly related to Permo–Triassic microcontinental collision tectonics in Asia.