• 1
    Lipowski ZJ. Psychosomatic medicine: Past and present. Part 1: Historical background. Can. J. Psychiatry 1986; 31: 27.
  • 2
    Wolman BB. Stress. Psychosomatic Disorders. New York: Plenum Medical Book Company, 1998; 55.
  • 3
    Drossman DA. Presidential address: Gastrointestinal illness and the biopsychosocial model. Psychosom. Med. 1998; 60: 25867.
  • 4
    Wolf S. The psyche and the stomach. A historical vignette. Gastroenterology 1981; 80: 60514.
  • 5
    Cannon WB. The movements of the intestine studied by means of roentgen rays. Am. J. Physiol. 1902; 6: 251.
  • 6
    Goyal RK, Hirano I. The enteric nervous system. N. Engl. J. Med. 1996; 334: 110615.
  • 7
    Bandler R, Price JL, Keay KA, eds. The Biological Basis for Mind Body Interactions. Amsterdam: Elsevier Sciences, 2000.
  • 8
    Mayer EA. The neurobiology of stress and gastrointestinal disease. Gut 2000; 47: 8619.
  • 9
    Tache Y, Martinez V, Million M, Rivier J. Corticotropin-releasing factor and the brain gut motor response to stress. Can. J. Gastroenterol. 1999; 13 (Suppl. A): 18A25A.
  • 10
    Tache Y, Monnikes H, Bonaz B, Rivier J. Role of CRF in stress-related alterations of gastric and colonic motor function. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1993; 697: 23363.
  • 11
    Timpl P, Spanagel R, Sillaber I et al. Impaired stress response and reduced anxiety in mice lacking a functional corticotropin releasing hormone receptor. Nat. Genet 1998; 19: 1626.
  • 12
    Sternberg EM, Chrousos GP, Gold PW. The stress response and the regulation of inflammatory disease. Ann. Intern. Med. 1992; 117: 85466.
  • 13
    Sapolsky RM, Krey LC, McEwen BS. Stress down regulates corticosterone receptors in a site specific manner in the brain. Endocrinology 1984; 114: 28792.
  • 14
    Bremmer JD, Randall P, Vermatten E et al. Magnetic resonance imaging based measurement of hippocampal Volume in post traumatic stress disorder related to childhood physical and sexual abuse: a preliminary report. Biol. Psychiatry 1997; 41: 2332.
  • 15
    Budavari AI, Olden KW. Psychosocial aspects of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Gastroenterol. Clin. N. Am. 2003; 32: 477506.
  • 16
    Fass R, Fennerty MB, Vakil N. Non erosive reflux disease—current concepts and dilemmas. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2001; 96: 30314.
  • 17
    Bradley LA, Richter JE, Pulliam TJ et al. The relationship between stress and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux: The influence of psychological factors. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1993; 88: 1119.
  • 18
    McDonald HJ, Bradley LA, Bailey MA, Schan CA, Richter JE. Relaxation training reduces symptom reports and acid exposure in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterology 1994; 107: 619.
  • 19
    Fass R, Malagon I, Naliboff BD, Pulliam G, Peleg N, Mayer EA. Effect of psychologically induced stress on symptom perception and autonomic nervous system response of patients with erosive esophagitis. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: A637.
  • 20
    Mittal RK, Stewart WR, Ramahi M, Chen J, Tisdelle D. The effect of psychological stress on the esophagogastric junction pressure and swallow induced relaxation. Gastroenterology 1994; 106: 147784.
  • 21
    Richter JE. Stress and psychologic and environmental factors in functional dyspepsia. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 1991; 182: 406.
  • 22
    Stanghellini V. Relationship between upper gastrointestinal symptoms and lifestyle, psychosocial factors and comorbidity in the general population: results from the Domestic/International Gastroenterology Surveillance Study (DIGEST). Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 1999; 231: 2937.
  • 23
    Hui WM, Shiu LP, Lam SK. The perception of life events and daily stress in nonulcer dyspepsia. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1999; 86: 2926.
  • 24
    Hveem K, Svebak S, Hausken T, Berstad A. Effect of mental stress and cisapride on autonomic nerve functions in functional dyspepsia. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 1998; 33: 1237.
  • 25
    Hausken T, Svebaks S, Wilhelmsen I et al. Low vagal tone and antral dysmotility in patients with functional dyspepsia. Psychosom. Med. 1993; 55: 1222.
  • 26
    Berstad A. Functional dyspepsia—a conceptual frame work. Gut 2000; 47 (Suppl. IV): iv3iv4.
  • 27
    Mearin F, Cucala M, Azpiroz F, Malagelada JR. The origin of symptoms on the brain–gut axis in functional dyspepsia. Gastroenterology 1991; 101: 9991006.
  • 28
    Tache Y. Cyclic vomiting syndrome: the corticotropin-releasing factor hypothesis. Dig. Dis. Sci. 1999; 44 (8 Suppl.): 79S86S.
  • 29
    Dunn JP, Cobb S. Frequency of peptic ulcer among executives, craftsmen and foreman. J. Occup. Med. 1962; 4: 3438.
  • 30
    Cobb S, Rose RM. Hypertension, peptic ulcer and diabetes in air-traffic controllers. J. Am. Med. Assoc 1973; 224: 48992.
  • 31
    Goulston KJ, Dent OF, Chapuis PH et al. Gastrointestinal morbidity among World War II prisoners of war: 40 years on. Med. J. Aust. 1985; 143: 610.
  • 32
    Christodoulou GN, Gargoulas A, Papaloukas A, Marinopoulou A, Rabavilas AD. Peptic ulcer in childhood: psychological factors. Psychother. Psychosom 1979; 32: 297301.
  • 33
    Feldman M, Walker P, Green JL, Weingarden K. Life events stress and psychosocial factors in men with peptic ulcer disease. A multidimensional case controlled study. Gastroenterology 1986; 91: 13709.
  • 34
    Alp MH, Court JH, Kerr Gant A. Personality pattern and emotional stress in the genesis of gastric ulcer. Gut 1970; 11: 7737.
  • 35
    Ellard K, Bearepaire J, Jones M, Piper D, Tennant C. Acute and chronic stress in duodenal ulcer disease. Gastroenterology 1990; 99: 162832.
  • 36
    Riley ID. Perforated peptic ulcer in war time. Lancet 1942; 2: 485.
  • 37
    Aoyama N, Kinoshita Y, Fujimoto S et al. Peptic ulcers after the Hanshin–Awaji earthquake: increased incidence of bleeding gastric ulcers. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1998; 93: 31116.
    Direct Link:
  • 38
    Engel GL. Psychosocial factors in ulcerative colitis in man and gibbons. Gastroenterology 1969; 57: 362.
  • 39
    Stout C, Snyder RL. Ulcerative colitis like lesions in siamang gibbons. Gastroenterology 1969; 57: 25661.
  • 40
    Drossman DA. Is the cotton-topped tamarin a model for behavioural research? Dig. Dis. Sci. 1985; 30 (12 Suppl.): 24S27S.
  • 41
    Salem SN, Shubair KS. Non-specific ulcerative colitis in Bedouin Arabs. Lancet 1967; 1: 4735.
  • 42
    North CS, Alpers DH, Helzer JE, Spitznagel EL. Do life events or depression exacerbate inflammatory bowel disease? Ann. Intern. Med. 1991; 114: 3816.
  • 43
    Duffy LC, Zielezny MA, Marshall JR et al. Relevance of major stress events as an indicator of disease activity prevalence in inflammatory bowel disease. Behav. Med. 1991; 17: 10110.
  • 44
    Garrett VD, Brantley PJ, Jones GH, McKnight GT. The relation between daily stress and Crohns disease. J. Behav. Med. 1991; 14: 8796.
  • 45
    Levenstein S, Prantera C, Varvo V et al. Stress and exacerbation in ulcerative colitis: a prospective study of patients enrolled in remission. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2000; 95: 121320.
    Direct Link:
  • 46
    Saunders PR, Kosecka U, McKay DM, Perdue MH. Acute stressors stimulate ion secretion and increase epithelial permeability in rat intestine. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 1994; 267 (5 Part 1): G794G799.
  • 47
    Kiliaan AJ, Saunders PR, Bijlsma PB et al. Stress stimulates transepithelial macromolecular uptake in rat jejunum. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 1998; 275 (5 Part 1): G1037G1044.
  • 48
    Barclay GR, Turnberg LA. Effect of psychological stress on salt and water transport in the human jejunum. Gastroenterology 1987; 93: 917.
  • 49
    Santos J, Saperas E, Nogueiras C et al. Release of mast cell mediators into the jejunum by cold pain stress in humans. Gastroenterology 1998; 114: 6408.
  • 50
    Santos J, Saunders PR, Hanssen NP et al. Corticotropin releasing hormone mimics stress induced colonic epithelial pathophysiology in the rat. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 1999; 277 (2 Part 1): G391G399.
  • 51
    Castagliudo I, Leeman SE, Bartolak-Suki E et al. A neurotensin antagonist, SR 48692, inhibits colonic response to immobilization stress in rats. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 1996; 93 12 611–15.
  • 52
    Meddings JB, Swain MG. Environmental stress induced gastrointestinal permeability is mediated by endogenous glucocorticoids in the rats. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 101928.
  • 53
    Santos J, Yang PC, Soderholm JD, Benjamin M, Perdue MH. Role of mast cells in chronic stress induced colonic epithelial barrier dysfunction in the rat. Gut 2001; 48: 6306.
  • 54
    Soderholm JD, Perdue MH. Stress and intestinal barrier function. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 2001; 280: G7G13.
  • 55
    Gue M, Bonbonne C, Fioramonti J et al. Stress induced colitis in rats: CRF and arginine vasopressin are not involved. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 1997; 272 (1 Part 1): G84G91.
  • 56
    Collins SM, McHugh K, Jacobson K et al. Previous inflammation alters the response of the rat colon to stress. Gastroenterology 1996; 111: 150915.
  • 57
    Qiu BS, Vallance BA, Blennerhassett PA, Collins SM. The role of CD4+ lymphocytes in the susceptibility of mice to stress induced reactivation of experimental colitis. Nat. Med. 1999; 5: 117882.
  • 58
    Walker EA, Katon WJ, Roy-Byrne PP, Jemelka RP, Russo J. Histories of sexual victimization in patients with irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease. Am. J. Psychiatry 1993; 150: 15026.
  • 59
    Leroi AM, Berier C, Watier A et al. Prevalence of sexual abuse among patients with functional disorders of the lower gastrointestinal tract. Int. J. Colorectal Dis. 1995; 10: 2006.
  • 60
    Talley NJ, Fett SL, Zinsmeister AR. Self reported abuse and gastrointestinal disease in outpatients: association with irritable bowel type symptoms. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1995; 90: 3357.
  • 61
    Kiloski NA, Talley NJ, Boyce PM. Predictors of health care seeking for irritable bowel syndrome and nonulcer dyspepsia: a critical review of the literature on symptom and psychosocial factors. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2001; 96: 13409.
    Direct Link:
  • 62
    Drossman DA, Li Z, Leserman J, Toomey TC, Hu YJ. Health status by gastrointestinal diagnosis and abuse history. Gastroenterology 1996; 110: 9991007.
  • 63
    Gordon JM, Verne GN, Bridgewater L, Sninsky CA. Diarrhoea in Persian Gulf War veterans: is this irritable bowel syndrome? Gastroenterology 1997; 112: A738.
  • 64
    Rao SS, Halfield RA, Suls JM, Chamberlain MJ. Psychological and physical stress induces differential effects on human colonic motility. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1998; 93: 98590.
    Direct Link:
  • 65
    Tache Y, Martinez V, Million M, Wang L. Stress related alteration of gut motor function: role of brain corticotropin-releasing factor receptors. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 2001; 280: G173G177.
  • 66
    Heitkemper M, Bura RL, Jarrett M, Hertig V, Lustyk MK, Bond EF. Evidence for autonomic nervous system imbalance in women with irritable bowel syndrome. Dig. Dis. Sci. 1998; 43: 20938.
  • 67
    Aggarwal A, Cutts TF, Abell TL et al. Predominant symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome correlate with specific autonomic nervous system abnormalities. Gastroenterology 1994; 106: 94550.
  • 68
    Emmanuel AV, Kamm MA. Laser doppler measurement of rectal mucosal blood flow. Gut 1999; 45: 649.
  • 69
    Lechner SM, Curtis AL, Brons R, Valentino RJ. Locus coeruleus activation by colon distention: role of corticotropin-releasing factor and excitatory amino acids. Brain Res. 1997; 756: 11494.
  • 70
    Gue M, Junien JL, Bueno L. Conditioned emotional response in rats enhances colonic motility through the central release of corticotropin-releasing factor. Gastroenterology 1991; 100: 96470.
  • 71
    Valentino RJ, Miselis RR, Pavcovich LA. Pontine regulation of pelvic viscera: pharmacological target for pelvic visceral dysfunction. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 1999; 20: 25360.
  • 72
    Heitkemper M, Jarrett M, Cain K et al. Increased urine catecholamines and cortisol in women with irritable bowel syndrome. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 1996; 91: 90613.
  • 73
    Patacchioli FR, Anagelucci L, Deblerba G, Monnazzi P, Leri O. Actual stress, psychopathology and salivary cortisol levels in the irritable bowel syndrome. J. Endocrinol. Invest. 2001; 24: 1737.
  • 74
    Munakata J, Mayer EA, Chang L et al. Autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to rectosigmoid stimulation. Gastroenterology 1998; 114: 80813.
  • 75
    Silverman DHS, Munakata JA, Ennes H, Mandelkern MA, Hoh CK, Mayer EA. Regional cerebral activity in normal and pathological perception of visceral pain. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 6472.
  • 76
    Mertz H, Morgan V, Tanner G et al. Regional cerebral activation in irritable bowel syndrome and control subjects with painful and nonpainful rectal distention. Gastroenterology 2000; 118: 8428.
  • 77
    Verne GN, Himes NC, Robinson ME et al. Central representation of visceral and cutaneous hypersensitivity in the irritable bowel syndrome. Pain 2003; 103: 99110.
  • 78
    Somers SC, Lembo A. Irritable bowel syndrome: evaluation and treatment. Gastroenterol. Clin. N. Am. 2003; 32: 50729.
  • 79
    Guthrie E, Creed F, Dawson D, Tomenson B. A randomized controlled trial of psychotherapy in patients with refractory irritable bowel syndrome. Br. J. Psychiatry 1993; 163: 31521.
  • 80
    Whorwell PJ. Use of hypnotherapy in gastrointestinal disease. Br. J. Hosp. Med. 1991; 45: 279.
  • 81
    Prior A, Colgan SM, Whorwell PJ. Changes in rectal sensitivity after hypnotherapy in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 1990; 31: 8968.