Background: The role played by the immune system in the progression of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is not completely clear. Opioids may facilitate the outbreak of infections through marked immunomodulating effects on the immune response against a virus. To asses if addicts can be treated successfully with interferon (IFN) during detoxification treatment, we evaluated some immune response mediators in addicts affected by CHC.
Method: A cohort of heroin users with CHC were enrolled during the detoxification period, divided into two groups and treated with IFN pegilate plus ribavirin (group A treated during methadone administration and group B treated at week 8 after methadone treatment completed). A group of patients with CHC and no history of drug addiction were enrolled as controls. Leukocyte subpopulation NK, CD4+, CD8+ and some cytokines Th1 (IFNγ, interleukin [IL]2) and Th2 (IL-6, IL-10) were evaluated prior to, during and after methadone treatment. Sustained virological response was evaluated 24 weeks after antiviral treatment was completed.
Results: During methadone treatment, significantly (P < 0.05) higher cytokine Th1 and NK and lower cytokine Th2 levels were observed in groups A and B compared with levels obtained before treatment in the same groups. Relapse occurred at 56 ± 8 weeks in 34/55 group A patients, at 24 ± 8 weeks in 33/52 group B patients and at 24 ± 4 weeks in group C, there being a significant difference (P < 0.05) between group A and B and between group A and C. No significant differences between all groups were detected in CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts.
Conclusions: Our results revealed that drug addicts with CHC can be treated successfully with IFN pegilate and ribavirin. This therapy can be recommended during the early phase of detoxification treatment to achieve a sustained response.