Liver fibrosis is caused by many chronic diseases. Liver injury results in activation of collagen-producing cells and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. This process is orchestrated by many cell types. Hepatocytes apoptosis and inflammatory cells trigger secretion of profibrogenic and proinflammatory cytokines, such as transforming growth factor-β1, angiotensin II, leptin, which in turn activates hepatic stellate cells, the major source of collagen type I. This review is focused on recent progress in the study of the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis.