• 1
    Thio C, Seaberg E, Skolasky RJ et al. HIV-1, hepatitis B virus, and risk of liver-related mortality in the Multicentre Cohort Study (MACS). Lancet 2002; 360: 19216.
  • 2
    Hoffman C, Thio C. Clinical implications of HIV and hepatitis B co-infection in Asia and Africa. Lancet Infectious Dis. 2007; 7: 4029.
  • 3
    Soriano V, Barreiro P, Nunez M. Management of chronic hepatitis B and C in HIV-coinfected patients. J. Antimicrobial Chemother. 2006; 57: 81518.
  • 4
    Koziel M, Peters M. Viral hepatitis in HIV infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 2007; 356: 144554.
  • 5
    Benhamou Y. Hepatitis B in the HIV-coinfected patient. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2007; 45: S5765.
  • 6
    Levy V, Grant R. Antiretroviral therapy for hepatitis B virus – HIV-coinfected patients: promises and pitfalls. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2006; 43: 90410.
  • 7
    Benhamou Y. Treatment algorithm for chronic hepatitis B in HIV-infected patients. J. Hepatol. 2006; 44: S90S94.
  • 8
    Nunez M, Soriano V. Management of patients co-infected with hepatitis B virus and HIV. Lancet Infect. Dis. 2005; 5: 37482.
  • 9
    Hammer S, Saag M, Schechter M et al. Treatment for adult HIV infection: 2006 recommendations of the International AIDS Society – USA panel. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 2006; 296: 827843.
  • 10
    Thio C, Locarnini S. Treatment of HIV/HBV coinfection: clinical and virological issues. AIDS Rev. 2007; 9: 4053.
  • 11
    Gaglio P, Sterling R, Daniels E, Tedaldi E. Hepatitis B virus and HIV coinfection: results of a survey on treatment practices and recommendations for therapy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2007; 45:61823.
  • 12
    Alberti A, Clumeck N, Collins S et al. Short statement of the first European Consensus Conference on the treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C in HIV co-infected patients. J. Hepatol. 2005; 42: 61524.
  • 13
    Soriano V, Puoti M, Bonacini M et al. Care of patients with chronic hepatitis B and HIV co-infection: recommendations from an HIV-HBV International Panel. AIDS 2005; 19: 22140.
  • 14
    Brook G, Gilson R, Wilkins E. BHIVA Guidelines – HIV and chronic hepatitis: co-infection with HIV and hepatitis B virus infection. BHIVA 2004. Cited 1 Nov 2007. Available from URL:
  • 15
    Rockstroh J, Bhagani S, Bruno R et al. Guidelines for the clinical management and treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C coinfection in HIV-infected adults. European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) 2007. Cited 10 Nov 2007. Available from URL:
  • 16
    Bodsworth N, Donovan B, Nightingale B. The effect of concurrent human immunodeficiency virus infection on chronic hepatitis B: a study of 150 homosexual men. J. Infect. Dis. 1989; 160:57782.
  • 17
    Gilson R, Hawkins A, Beecham M et al. Interactions between HIV and hepatitis B virus in homosexual men: effects on the natural history of infection. AIDS 1997; 11: 597606.
  • 18
    Krogsgaard K, Lindhardt B, Nielson J et al. The influence of HTLV-III infection on the natural history of hepatitis B virus infection in male homosexual HBsAg carriers. Hepatology 1987;7: 3741.
  • 19
    Colin J, Cazals-Hatem D, Loriot M et al. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection on chronic hepatitis B in homosexual men. Hepatology 1999; 29: 130610.
  • 20
    Drake A, Mijch A, Sasadeusz J. Immune reconstitution hepatitis in HIV and hepatitis B coinfection, despite lamivudine therapy as part of HAART. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2004; 39: 12932.
  • 21
    Ledinghen VD, Douvin C, Kettaneh A et al. Diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis by transient elastography in HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 2006; 41: 1759.
  • 22
    Spycher C, Zimmerman A, Reichen J. The diagnostic value of liver biopsy. BMC Gastroenterol. 2001; 1: 12. Cited 22 Nov 2007. Available from URL:
  • 23
    Lai C. Therapeutic advances in chronic hepatitis B. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2004; 19 (Suppl.): S59.
  • 24
    Bonino F, Marcellin P, Lau G et al. Predicting response to peginterferon alpha-2a, lamivudine and the two combined for HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. Gut 2007; 56: 699705.
  • 25
    Chen C, Yang H, Su J et al. Risk of hepatocellular carcinoma across a biological gradient of serum hepatitis B virus DNA level. JAMA 2006; 295: 6573.
  • 26
    Iloeje U, Yang H, Su J et al. Predicting cirrhosis risk based on the level of circulating hepatitis B viral load. Gastroenterology 2006; 130: 67886.
  • 27
    Keeffe E, Dieterich D, Han S et al. A treatment algorithm for the management of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the United States. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2004; 2: 87106.
  • 28
    Zoulim F. Assessment and treatment efficacy in HBV infection and disease. J. Hepatology 2006; 44 (Suppl.): S959.
  • 29
    Shaw T, Bowden S, Locarnini S. Chemotherapy for hepatitis B: new treatment options necessitate reappraisal of traditional endpoints. Gastroenterology 2002; 123: 213540.
  • 30
    Marcellin P, Boyer N, Colin J et al. Recombinant alpha interferon for chronic hepatitis B in anti-HIV positive patients receiving zidovudine. Gut 1993; 34 (2 Suppl.): S106.
  • 31
    Di Martino V, Thevenot T, Colin J et al. Influence of HIV infection on the response to interferon therapy and the long-term outcome of chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology 2002; 123: 181222.
  • 32
    Johnson R, Ristig M, Overton E, Lisker-Melman M, Cummings O, Aberg J. Safety and tolerability of sequential pegylated IFN-alpha2a and tenofovir for hepatitis B infection in HIV+ individuals. HIV Clin. Trials 2007; 8: 17381.
  • 33
    Cooksley W, Piratvisuth T, Lee S et al. Peginterferon alpha-2a (40 kDa): an advance in the treatment of e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B. J. Viral Hepat. 2003; 10: 298305.
  • 34
    Chung R, Andersen J, Volberding P et al. Peginterferon Alfa-2a plus ribavirin versus interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C in HIV-coinfected persons. N. Engl. J. Med. 2004; 351: 4519.
  • 35
    Neumann A, Polis M, Rozenberg L et al. Differential antiviral effect of PEG-interferon-alpha-2b on HIV and HCV in the treatment of HIV/HCV co-infected patients. AIDS 2007; 21: 185565.
  • 36
    Lau G, Piratvisuth T, Luo K et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a, lamivudine and the combination for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. N. Engl. J. Med. 2005; 352: 268295.
  • 37
    Mauss S, Valenti W, DePamphilis J et al. Risk factors for hepatic decompensation in patients with HIV/HCV coinfection and liver cirrhosis during interferon-based therapy. AIDS 2004; 18: F215.
  • 38
    Liaw Y. Results of lamivudine trials in Asia. J. Hepatol. 2003; 39: S11115.
  • 39
    Chang T, Lai C, Chien R et al. Four years of lamivudine treatment in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B. J. Gastroenterology Hepatology 2004; 19: 127682.
  • 40
    Matthews G, Bartholomeusz A, Locarnini S et al. Characteristics of drug resistant HBV in an international collaborative study of HIV-HBV-infected individuals on extended lamivudine therapy. AIDS 2006; 20: 86370.
  • 41
    Matthews G, Dore G, Response to Schmutz et al. Combination of tenofovir and lamivudine versus tenofovir after lamivudine failure for therapy of hepatitis B in HIV-coinfection. AIDS 2007; 21: 7778.
  • 42
    Bartholomeusz A, Locarnini S. Hepatitis B virus mutations associated with antiviral therapy. J. Med. Virol. 2006; 78 (Suppl. 1): S525.
  • 43
    Fisher E, Chaloner K, Cohn D et al. The safety and efficacy of adefovir dipivoxil in patients with advanced HIV disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. AIDS 2001; 15: 16951700.
  • 44
    Benhamou Y, Bochet M, Thibault V et al. Safety and efficacy of adefovir dipivoxil in patients co-infected with HIV-1 and lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus: an open-label pilot study. Lancet 2001; 358: 71823.
  • 45
    Marcellin P, Chang T, Lim S et al. Adefovir dipivoxil for the treatment of hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B. N. Engl. J. Med. 2001; 348: 80816.
  • 46
    Delaugerre C, Marcelin A, Thibault V et al. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 reverse transcriptase resistance mutations in hepatitis B virus (HBV) -HIV-Coinfected patients treated for HBV chronic infection once daily with 10 milligrams of adefovir dipivoxil combined with lamivudine. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2002; 46: 15868.
  • 47
    Durantel S, Werle B, Durantel D et al. Different profiles of response to Adefovir Dipivoxil and factors that may influence response in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 2004; 40: 654A.
  • 48
    Hadziyannis S, Tassopoulos N, Heathcote E et al. Long-term therapy with adefovir dipivoxil for HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B for up to 5 years. Gastroenterology 2006; 131: 174351.
  • 49
    Lampertico P, Vigano M, Manenti E, Iavarone M, Sablon E, Colombo M. Low resistance to adefovir combined with lamivudine: a 3-year study of 145 lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B patients. Gastroenterology 2007; 133: 144551.
  • 50
    Chang T, Gish R, DeMan R et al. A comparison of entecavir and lamivudine for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B. N. Engl. J. Med. 2006; 354: 100110.
  • 51
    Lai C, Shouval D, Lok A et al. Entecavir versus lamivudine for patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. N. Engl. J. Med. 2006; 354: 101120.
  • 52
    Colonno RJ, Rose R, Baldick CJ et al. Entecavir resistance is rare in nucleoside naive patients with hepatitis B. Hepatology 2006; 44: 165665.
  • 53
    Tenney D, Levine S, Rose R et al. Clinical emergence of entecavir-resistant hepatitis B virus requires additional substitutions in virus already resistant to lamivudine. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2004; 48: 3498507.
  • 54
    Innaimo S, Seifer M, Bisacchi G, Standring D, Zahler R, Colonno R. Identification of BMS-200475 as a potent and selective inhibitor of hepatitis B virus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1997; 41: 14448.
  • 55
    McMahon M, Jilek B, Brennan T et al. The HBV drug entecavir – effects on HIV-1 replication and resistance. N. Engl. J. Med. 2007; 356: 261421.
  • 56
    Borroto-Esoda K, Parkin N, Miller M. A comparison of the phenotypic susceptibility profiles of emtricitabine and lamivudine. Antivir. Chem. Chemother. 2007; 18: 297300.
  • 57
    Yang H, Qi X, Sabogal A, Miller M, Xiong S, Delaney W. Cross-resistance testing of next-generation nucleoside and nucleotide analogues against lamivudine-resistant HBV. Antivir. Ther. 2005; 10: 62533.
  • 58
    Dore G, Cooper D, Pozniak A et al. Efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in antiretroviral therapy-naive and experienced patients coinfected with HIV-1 and hepatitis B virus. J. Infect. Dis. 2004; 189: 118592.
  • 59
    Marcellin P, Buti M, Krastev Z et al. A randomized, double-blind, comparison tenofovir DF (TDF) versus adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) for treatment hbeag-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB): study GS-US-174-0102. Hepatology 2007; 46 (4 Suppl. 1): 80A.
  • 60
    Peters M, Andersen J, Lynch P et al. Randomized controlled study of tenofovir and adefovir in chronic hepatitis B virus and HIV infection: ACTG A5127. Hepatology 2006; 44: 111016.
  • 61
    Sheldon J, Camino N, Rodes B et al. Selection of hepatitis B virus polymerase mutations in HIV-coinfected patients treated with tenofovir. Antivir. Ther. 2005; 10: 72734.
  • 62
    Buchacz K, Brooks J, Tong T et al. Evaluation of hypophosphataemia in tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-exposed and TDF-unexposed HIV-infected out-patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. HIV Med. 2006; 7: 4516.
  • 63
    Marcellin P, Lau G, Bonino F et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a alone, lamivudine alone, and the two in combination in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. N. Engl. J. Med. 2004; 351: 120617.
  • 64
    Sung J, Lai J, Zeuzem S et al. A randomised double-blind phase II study of lamivudine (LAM) compared to lamivudine plus adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) for treatment naive patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB): week 52 analysis. J. Hepatol. 2003; 38 (Suppl. 2): 256.
  • 65
    Fung S, Chae H, Fontana R et al. Virological response and resistance to adefovir in patients with chronic hepatitis B. J. Hepatol. 2005; 44: 28390.
  • 66
    Lee Y, Suh D, Lim Y et al. Increased risk of adefovir resistance in patients with lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B after 48 weeks of adefovir dipivoxil monotherapy. Hepatology 2006; 43: 138591.
  • 67
    Schmutz G, Nelson M, Lutz T et al. Combination of tenofovir and lamivudine versus tenofovir after lamivudine failure for therapy of hepatitis B in HIV-coinfection. AIDS 2006; 20: 19514.
  • 68
    Lai C, Leung N, Teo E et al. A 1-year trial of telbivudine, lamivudine, and the combination in patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology 2005; 129: 52836.
  • 69
    Hirsh M. Entecavir surprise. N. Engl. J. Med. 2007; 356: 26413.
  • 70
    DHHS. DHHS Guidelines for the Use of Anti-retroviral Agents in HIV-1-infected Adults and Adolescents. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services, 2006.
  • 71
    Delaney W. Progress in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: long-term experience with adefovir dipivoxil. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2007; 59: 82732.
  • 72
    Chen C, Yu M, Liaw Y. Epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 1997; 12: S294308.
  • 73
    Serraino D, Boschini A, Carrieri P et al. Cancer risk among men with, or at risk of, HIV infection in southern Europe. AIDS 2000; 14: 553559.
  • 74
    Wun Y, Dickinson J. Alpha-fetoprotein and/or liver ultrasonography for liver cancer screening in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2003; 2: CD002799.
  • 75
    Zhang B, Yang B, Tang Z. Randomized controlled trial of screening for hepatocellular carcinoma. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 2004; 130: 41722.
  • 76
    Di Benedetto FD, De Ruvo ND, Berretta M et al. Hepatocellular carcinoma in HIV patients treated by liver transplantation. Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 2007. Cited 30 Oct 2007. Available from URL:
  • 77
    Gluud L, Klingenberg S, Nikolova D, Gluud C. Banding ligation versus beta-blockers as primary prophylaxis in esophageal varices: systematic review of randomized trials. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 2007; 102: 28428.
    Direct Link: