Background and Aim: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a serious complication of advanced liver disease and carries a poor prognosis. Recent trials have indicated that terlipressin may be effective in reversing HRS. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of terlipressin therapy in reversing type 1 HRS defined as a serum creatinine <1.5 mg/dL during treatment.
Methods: Randomized controlled trials in which patients with type 1 HRS received at least 3 days of terlipressin therapy and albumin in the intervention arm were included after a systematic search of the published English reports. Studies with other vasoconstrictor therapies in the control group were excluded.
Results: A total of 223 patients with HRS type 1 in four different trials, were included in the final analysis. Alcohol-related cirrhosis was the most common underlying etiology. The risk ratio for reversal in type 1 HRS with terlipressin therapy was 3.66 (95% confidence interval 2.15–6.23). Recurrence of HRS was low (8%). Serious side-effects requiring discontinuation of therapy were seen only in 6.8% of patients on terlipressin therapy. There was a trend towards improved transplant-free survival at 90 days in the terlipressin group (relative risk 1.86 95% confidence interval 1.0–3.4, P = 0.05).
Conclusions: Terlipressin is effective in reversing HRS type 1. Recurrence of HRS is rare with at least 14 days of therapy. Serious side-effects requiring discontinuation of therapy are less common. There appears to be a survival benefit in patients with HRS treated with terlipressin.