• band-ligation;
  • child;
  • endoscopy;
  • portal-hypertension;
  • sclerotherapy


Background and Aim:  There is scarcity of data about children on a combination of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) and endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST). We assessed the efficacy of EVL followed by EST and EST alone in children with extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO).

Methods:  From January 2000 to March 2007, 186 consecutive children (mean age 6.3 ± 4.2 years, 82% boys) with EHPVO with variceal bleeding were included. EVL followed by EST (Group I, n = 101) or EST alone (Group II, n = 60) was carried out at 3-weekly intervals until eradication. Surveillance endoscopy was done at 3 to 6-monthly intervals. In all cases, the number of sessions required to eradicate the esophageal varices, the volume of sclerosant, the complications and the endoscopic outcome on follow up were recorded.

Results:  Eradication was achieved in 158 of 161 (98%) children and 25 were lost to follow up. Group I required significantly fewer sessions (5.2 ± 1.8 vs 6.8 ± 2.8, P < 0.005), less sclerosant (13 ± 8.2 mL vs 30 ± 20 mL, P < 0.001) and had fewer complications (7% vs 28%, P < 0.001) as compared with Group II. On follow up (33 ± 17.6 months in Group I and 43 ± 16.7 months in Group II), there was a significant increase in the prevalence of portal hypertensive gastropathy as well as isolated gastric varices in both the groups. However, the prevalence of gastroesophageal varices decreased.

Conclusions:  EVL followed by EST is better than EST alone in children with EHPVO as it requires fewer sessions and has fewer complications. However, following eradication, evolution of gastric varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy was similar in the two groups.