Background and Aim: New regimens, including those with new fluoroquinolones, have been developed to overcome the antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori. We aimed to assess the antibiotic resistance rates, as well as the molecular mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance, of the clinical isolates obtained in Korea.
Methods: The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole and tetracycline were determined by the agar dilution method for 185 treatment-naïve Helicobacter pylori isolates. The resistant strains were evaluated for the presence of point mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA and gyrB genes by direct nucleotide sequencing.
Results: Twenty-nine (29/185, 15.7%) of the strains were found to be resistant to ciprofloxacin. The resistance rates to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole and tetracycline were 2.2% (four of 185), 10.8% (20 of 185), 30.3% (56 of 185) and 0.5% (one of 185), respectively. The most common mutations in the H. pylori gyrA gene were found at codons corresponding to Asp87 (16/29, 55.2%) and Asn91 (10/29, 34.5%).
Conclusions: Primary H. pylori resistance to ciprofloxacin occurred at a high frequency. The fluoroquinolone resistance is most likely mediated through amino acid point mutation in the gyrA gene at Asn87 and Asp91.