• adenoma characterization;
  • chromoendoscopy;
  • colonoscopy;
  • narrow-band imaging


Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is a new endoscopic technology that highlights surface structures and superficial mucosal capillaries during colonoscopy at a single push of a button. NBI has a high sensitivity and specificity for differentiating neoplastic and non-neoplastic polyps by means of mucosal and capillary patterns. It is also useful in determining the invasion depth of early colorectal cancers and evaluating free margins after endoscopic resection. However, it has not been shown to improve the adenoma detection rate compared with white-light endoscopy. Although narrow-band imaging is now available commercially, its role in routine clinical practice during colonoscopy is not well defined. The difficulties in interpreting results partly relate to different NBI nomenclatures used in classifying colonic adenomas and their lack of standardization. Future research should focus on establishing a reliable NBI nomenclature for capillary patterns, defining the learning curve and interobserver variation, and validating the effectiveness of NBI in routine colonoscopy.