De novo malignancies are frequent complications after liver transplantation. They are one of the leading causes of late death. Some authors have reported promising results following implementation of extensive cancer surveillance programs. Screening protocols might benefit patients by providing a diagnosis at an earlier stage when tumors may be cured. These protocols should be based on the specific risk factors of every patient. Unfortunately, the scientific evidence supporting screening protocols is still very weak both in the general population and in the transplant patients. On this basis, there is not enough evidence to recommend routine screening for all liver transplant recipients, apart from the recommendations accepted for the general population. Multicenter studies in selected groups of patients at high risk for malignancy may be the only way of defining the potential benefit of screening programs post-transplantation.