Background and Aims: Disease recurrence following transplantation occurs in 20–45% of patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Factors associated with an increased risk of recurrence include human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR3 and HLA DR4 positivity, inadequate immunosuppression, and severity of inflammation in the native liver. Titers of several autoantibodies can be elevated in patients with AIH, including antinuclear antibody (ANA) and antismooth muscle antibody (SMA); however, it is unclear whether or not the degree of elevation influences the risk of disease recurrence following transplantation.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the potential impact of pretransplant titers on post-transplant outcomes for patients with AIH. Sixty-three patients with AIH who underwent 72 liver transplants between 1 January 1989 and 1 January 2009 were included, with a median follow up of 10 months. Patients were divided into group A (ANA or SMA ≥ 1 : 160) and group B (titers ≤ 1 : 160).
Results: There was no significant difference in the recurrence rates or death between patients in groups A and B, respectively. Only race appeared to impact outcomes, with African American patients having a higher incidence of death and recurrent disease post-transplant compared to other ethnicities.
Conclusions: Based on our findings, pretransplant ANA and SMA levels do not appear to impact recurrence rates or outcomes following liver transplantation for AIH.