• acute rheumatic fever;
  • epidemiology;
  • group A streptococcus;
  • impetigo;
  • pharyngitis;
  • post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis

Abstract:  The group A streptococcus causes the widest range of disease in humans of all bacterial pathogens. Group A streptococcal diseases are more common in children than adults with diseases ranging from pharyngitis and impetigo to invasive infections and the post-streptococcal sequelae – acute rheumatic fever and acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. The global burden of severe group A streptococcal disease is concentrated largely in developing countries and Indigenous populations such as Aboriginal Australians. Control of group A streptococcal disease is poor in these settings and the need for a vaccine has been argued. With an ever-increasing understanding of the group A streptococcus at a molecular level, new and sophisticated vaccines are currently in human trials and the next decade holds exciting prospects for curbing group A streptococcal diseases.