• 1
    Young EW, Akiba T, Albert JM et al. Magnitude and impact of abnormal mineral metabolism in hemodialysis patients in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS). Am. J. Kidney Dis. 2004; 44: 348.
  • 2
    Moe SM, Chertow GM, Coburn JW et al. Achieving NKF-K/DOQI bone metabolism and disease treatment goals with cinacalcet HCl. Kidney Int. 2005; 67: 76071.
  • 3
    NKF. K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Bone Metabolism and Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 2003; 42: S567.
  • 4
    Marco MP, Craver L, Betriu A, Belart M, Fibla J, FernandeZ. E. Higher impact of mineral metabolism on cardiovascular mortality in a European hemodialysis population. Kidney Int. 2003; 85 (Suppl. ): S1114.
  • 5
    Ganesh SK, Stack AG, Levin NW, Hulbert-Shearon T, Port FK. Association of elevated serum PO (4), Ca x PO (4) product, and parathyroid hormone with cardiac mortality risk in chronic hemodialysis patients. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2001; 12: 21318.
  • 6
    Walters BAJ, Nabut J, Danese MD, Kim JJ, Klassen PS. Attainment of proposed NKF-K/DOQI PTH and calcium x phosphate targets is associated with decreased mortality risk in hemodialysis patients. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2003; SUFC216 (Abstract).
  • 7
    Block GA, Klassen PS, Lazarus JM, Ofsthun N, Lowrie EG, Chertow GM. Mineral metabolism, mortality, and morbidity in maintenance hemodialysis. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2004; 15: 220818.
  • 8
    Jono S, McKee MD, Murry CE et al. Phosphate regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell calcification. Circ. Res. 2000; 87: E1017.
  • 9
    Giachelli CM, Jono S, Shioi A, Nishizawa Y, Mori K, Morii H. Vascular calcification and inorganic phosphate. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 2001; 38: S347.
  • 10
    Yang H, Curinga G, Giachelli CM. Elevated extracellular calcium levels induce smooth muscle cell matrix mineralization in vitro. Kidney Int. 2004; 66: 22939.
  • 11
    Dorai H, Vukicevic S, Sampath TK. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (osteogenic protein-1) inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation and stimulates the expression of markers that are characteristic of SMC phenotype in vitro. J. Cell. Physiol. 2000; 184: 3745.
  • 12
    Ketteler M, BongartZ. P, Westenfeld R et al. Association of low fetuin-A (AHSG) concentrations in serum with cardiovascular mortality in patients on dialysis: a cross-sectional study. Lancet 2003; 361: 82733.
  • 13
    Jono S, Nishizawa Y, Shioi A, Morii H. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide as a local regulator of vascular calcification. Its inhibitory action on in vitro calcification by bovine vascular smooth muscle cells. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 1997; 17: 113542.
  • 14
    Kestenbaum B, Seliger SL, Gillen DL et al. Parathyroidectomy rates among United States dialysis patients: 1990–1999. Kidney Int. 2004; 65: 2828.
  • 15
    Neonakis E, Wheeler MH, Krishnan H, Coles GA, Davies F, Woodhead JS. Results of surgical treatment of renal hyperparathyroidism. Arch. Surg. 1995; 130: 6438.
  • 16
    Gasparri G, Camandona M, Abbona GC et al. Secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism: causes of recurrent disease after 446 parathyroidectomies. Ann. Surg. 2001; 233: 659.
  • 17
    Gagne ER, Urena P, Leite-Silva S et al. Short- and long-term efficacy of total parathyroidectomy with immediate autografting compared with subtotal parathyroidectomy in hemodialysis patients. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 1992; 3: 100817.
  • 18
    Jofre R., LopeZ. GomeZ. JM, MenargueZ. J et al. Parathyroidectomy: whom and when? Kidney Int. 2003; 85 (Suppl.): S97100.
  • 19
    Kestenbaum B, Andress DL, SchwartZ. SM et al. Survival following parathyroidectomy among United States dialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2004; 66: 20106.
  • 20
    Nichols P, Owen JP, Ellis HA, Farndon JR, Kelly PJ, Ward MK. Parathyroidectomy in chronic renal failure: A nine-year follow-up study. Q. J. Med. 1990; 77: 117593.
  • 21
    Coen G, Calabria S, Bellinghieri G et al. Parathyroidectomy in chronic renal failure: Short- and long-term results on parathyroid function, blood pressure and anemia. Nephron 2001; 88: 14955.
  • 22
    Yasunaga C, Matsuo K, Yanagida T, Matsuo S, Nakamoto M, Goya T. Early effects of parathyroidectomy on erythropoietin production in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Am. J. Surg. 2002; 183: 199204.
  • 23
    Chow KM, Szeto CC, Kum LC et al. Improved health-related quality of life and left ventricular hypertrophy among dialysis patients treated with parathyroidectomy. J. Nephrol. 2003; 16: 87885.
  • 24
    Nakanishi S, Yano S, Nomura R et al. Efficacy of direct injection of calcitriol into the parathyroid glands in uraemic patients with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 2003; 18 (Suppl. 3): 479.
  • 25
    Tanaka M, Itoh K, Matsushita K, Fukagawa M. Efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients on hemodialysis as evaluated by parathyroid hormone levels according to K/DOQI guidelines. Ther. Apher. Dial. 2005; 9: 4852.
  • 26
    Fukagawa M, Kitaoka M, Tominaga Y et al. Guidelines for percutaneous ethanol injection therapy of the parathyroid glands in chronic dialysis patients. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 2003; 18 (Suppl. 3): 313.
  • 27
    De Barros Gueiros JE, Chammas MC, Gerhard R et al. Percutaneous ethanol (PEIT) and calcitrol (PCIT) injection therapy are ineffective in treating severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 2004; 19: 65763.
  • 28
    Yamamoto H, Katoh N, Takeyama H et al. Surgical verification of percutaneous maxacalcitol injection therapy on enlarged parathyroid glands in chronic dialysis patients. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 2003; 18 (Suppl. 3): 5052.
  • 29
    Yano S, Sugimoto T, Tsukamoto T et al. Association of decreased calcium-sensing receptor expression with proliferation of parathyroid cells in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Kidney Int. 2000; 58: 198086.
  • 30
    Tokumoto M, Tsuruya K, Fukuda K et al. Parathyroid cell growth in patients with advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism: vitamin D receptor and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 2003; 18 (Suppl. 3): 912.
  • 31
    Tominaga Y, Tanaka Y, Sato K, Nagasaka T, Takagi H. Histopathology, pathophysiology, and indications for surgical treatment of renal hyperparathyroidism. Semin. Surg. Oncol. 1997; 13: 7886.
  • 32
    Fukagawa M, Kitaoka M, Yi H et al. Serial evaluation of parathyroid size by ultrasonography is another useful marker for the long-term prognosis of calcitriol pulse therapy in chronic dialysis patients. Nephron 1994; 68: 2218.
  • 33
    Goodman WG, Hladik GA, Turner SA et al. The Calcimimetic agent AMG 073 lowers plasma parathyroid hormone levels in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2002; 13: 101724.
  • 34
    Quarles LD, Sherrard DJ, Adler S et al. The calcimimetic AMG 073 as a potential treatment for secondary hyperparathyroidism of end-stage renal disease. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2003; 14: 57583.
  • 35
    Lindberg JS, Moe SM, Goodman WG et al. The calcimimetic AMG 073 reduces parathyroid hormone and calcium x phosphorus in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Kidney Int. 2003; 63: 24854.
  • 36
    Block GA, Martin KJ, De Francisco AL et al. Cinacalcet for secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients receiving hemodialysis. N. Engl. J. Med. 2004; 350: 151625.
  • 37
    Lindberg JS, Culleton B, Wong G et al. Cinacalcet HCl, an oral calcimimetic agent for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: A randomized, double-blind, multicenter study. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2005; 16: 8007.
  • 38
    Cunningham J, Chertow G, Goodman W et al. The effect of cinacalcet HCl on parathyroidectomy, fracture, hospitalization, and mortality in dialysis subjects with secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). EDTA 2004; MO17 (Abstract).
  • 39
    Malluche HH, Monier-Faugere MC, Wang G et al. Cinacalcet HCl reduces bone turnover and bone marrow fibrosis in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). EDTA 2004; MO16 (Abstract).
  • 40
    Chertow GM, Corpier C, Zeig S et al. Preliminary results from TARGET: Treatment strategies to achieve recommended K/DOQI™ goals in ESRD patients on cinacalcet. American Society of Nephrology Renal Week 2004; PUB479 (Abstract).
  • 41
    Reed J, Keightley G, Blumenthal S et al. The CONTROL STUDY: enhanced achievement of NKF-K/DOQI™ bone metabolism and disease targets using cinacalcet HCl (Sensipar™). American Society of Nephrology Renal Week 2004; FPO986 (Abstract).
  • 42
    The CARI guidelines (Caring for Australians with Renal Impairment). Available from: